chapter 10 vocab A&P Flashcards


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1

neurons

react to changes- send nerve impulses form communication

2

neuroglia

- support and nourish neurons

- send and receive messages

- help maintain blood- brain barrier

3

dendrites

branched receptive surfaces; a neuron can have many

4

axon

transmits impulses and releases neurotransmitters to another neuron or effector

5

synapse

site at which a neuron transmits a nerve impulse to another neuron or effector

6

central nervous system

brain and spinal cord

7

peripheral nervous system

connects CNS to rest of body

- cranial nerves

- spinal nerves

8

sensory receptors

gather info by detecting changes and send to the CNS via sensory neurons

9

somatic nervous system

transmits voluntary instructions to skeletal muscle

10

autonomic nervous system

transmit involuntary instructions from CNS to smooth muscle cardiac muscle and glands

11

synaptic cleft

separates two neurons or the neuron and effector

12

schwann cells

wrap tightly around axon in layers composed of myelin

13

neurilemma

surrounds myelin sheath between schwann cells

14

nodes of ranvier

gaps between the sheath between schwann cells

15

oligodendrocytes

- myelinate CNS axon

- single one can myelinate many axons

16

multipolar neuron

- many processes

-99% of neurons

- most neurons of CNS

17

bipolar neuron

- two processes

- ear, eye, nose

18

unipolar neuron

one process

- cell bodies are in gangia- clusters

19

sensory neurons

afferent neurons

- carry impulses to CNS

20

interneurons

located in CNS

-link neurons

21

motor neurons

efferent neurons

- carry impulses away from CNS to effectors

22

astrocytes

- connects neurons to blood vessels; exchange nutrients and growth factor

- part of blood brain barrier

23

microglia

phagocytic cell clean up

24

ependymal cells

- line central canal of spinal cord and ventricles of brain, cover choroid plexuses

- help regulate composition of cerebrospinal fluid

- cuboidal or columnar cells, ciliated

25

satellite cells

support clusters of neuron cell bodies (ganglia)

26

presynaptic neuron

send impulses

27

postsynaptic neuron

receives impulses

28

synaptic transmission

transmission of a nerve impulse from one neuron to another

29

action potential

rapid change in membrane potential - nerve impulses

30

synaptic potentials

local potentials resulting from changes in chemically gated ion channels

31

impulses

wave of excitation transmitted through tissue and nerve fibers and muscle that result in activity or inhibitation

32

neurotransmitters

a chemical that is made by nerve cells and used to communicate with other nerve cells and muscle cells

33

myelin

fatty substance that covers and protect nerves

34

membrane potential

electric potential between the interior and exterior of a biological cell

35

resting potential

electric potential difference across plasma membrane when cell is in non-exiting cell

36

threshold potential

minimum potential difference that must be reached in order to fire an action potential

37

trigger zone

type of stimulation triggers a specific type of response

38

saltatory conduction

axon potentials traveling down the axon "jump" from node to node

39

excitatory neurotransmitter

"excite" the neuron and causes it to fire off message to continue along the next cell

40

inhibitory neurotransmitter

block or prevent the chemical message from being passed any farther