Physiology 1/13 and 1/18 Flashcards


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1

Features of resident adult stem cells

immature, divide regularly, can self-renew

2

special feature of the liver

contains special epithelia that allow it to regenerate if up to half of it is destroyed

3

cells that don't divide

muscle cells and neurons

4

how muscle tissue is regenerated

resident adult stem cells, which can repair small amounts of damage

5

possible repair for heart attacks

stem cell patch

6

issues with using embryonic stem cells for their regenerative power in adults

can cause teratomas, can be rejected by the host, ethical implications

7

excellent source of syngeneic stem cells for regeneration

bone marrow stem cells - can form blood cells, muscle cells, and even neurons

8

pluripotent stem cells

can give rise to several different cell types

9

what happens at injury sites where regeneration is not possible

scar tissue formation

10

how lymphatic system relates to osmotic pressure and blood pressure

the lymphatic system reclaims any fluid that osmotic could not bring back to the blood stream alone

11

how much fluid osmotic pressure reclaims when it is lost due to blood pressure

90%

12

keeps blood from escaping into the lymphatic capillaries

one way valves

13

where lymphatic capillary meets veins

subclavian veins

14

2 ways lymph is pushed through the one way valves into the blood stream

pressure from skeletal muscle contractions, pressure from smooth muscle contractions

15

main difference between lymph capillaries and regular capillaries

lymph capillaries have no basement membrane, and therefore no protection against large molecules like proteins, bacteria, cancer cells, etc

16

2 functions of the lymphatic system

reclaim plasma lost to blood pressure, filter material out of lymph fluid

17

function of lymph nodes

filter material out of lymph fluid

18

where lymph fluid enters the lymph node

the afferent side (outside of the kidney bean)

19

where lymph fluid escapes the lymph node

the efferent side (the inner bend in the kidney bean)

20

how lymph nodes remove foreign material

they're packed with macrophages and lymphocytes, which multiply and attack pathogens

21

germinal center

present in lymph nodes when local attack is occurring on foreign bodies, disappear once infection has been defeated

22

where lymph nodes are in the body

scattered throughout, but greater concentration reside in the neck, groin, and armpits

23

2 reasons why lymph nodes could be enlarged

  • germinal centers are forming from cloning of lymphocytes
  • bacteria are causing damage and attracting inflammation

24

less organized defense tissue of the lymphatic system

tonsils, Peyer's patches

25

function of the spleen

filters blood the way lymph nodes filter lymph

26

easiest pathway for cancer to get into the bloodstream

through the lymphatic system

27

acetaminophen

analgesic, antipyretic, causes liver damage

28

examples of things that are both vasoactive and chemotactic

bacterial products, serum peptides, C3a and C5a (complement fragments), Mast cells

29

cytokines

naturally occurring chemicals that produce inflammation

30

what mediates systemic response

interleukin-1, TNF

31

humira

TNF blocking antibody medication, used to treat rheumatoid arthritis

32

what produces interleukin-1

dendritic cells and macrophages

33

Functions of interleukin-1 and TNF

  • induce fever through messages to the hypothalamus
  • act on thyroid/adrenal glands to divert energy toward defense
  • reabsorb muscle proteins to make antibodies
  • cause leukocytosis
  • cause liver to produce acute phase proteins
  • trigger adaptive immunity

34

haptoglobin

acute phase protein made in liver, absorbs iron to keep it away from bacteria

35

CRP

acute phase protein made in liver, activates complement and identifies foreign material to phagocytose

36

uncontrolled inflammation effect on the lungs

fluid buildup, difficulty breathing

37

cytokine storm

too many cytokines produced, causes damage to the body

38

steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

  • more potent
  • mixed mechanisms
  • can block phospholipase (block VFs and CFs at the source)
  • decrease neutrophil adhesion to capillary walls
  • decrease IL-1
  • decrease leukocytes

39

consequence of anti-inflammatory drugs

more vulnerable to infection

40

non-drug anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical tactic

use ice to cause vasoconstriction

41

diseases involving chronic inflammation

tuberculosis, arthritis, hepatitis

42

angiogenesis

new blood pathway formed as a response to hypoxia

43

fix connective tissue

fibroblasts

44

granuloma in liver

cirrhosis of the liver

45

granuloma in the lungs (tuberculosis)

tubercle

46

effects of chronic inflammation

  • too many macrophages - destruction of healthy cells
  • connective tissue buildup/granulomas
  • stem cell mutation/cancer
  • neutrophils explode and release ROS, oxidize host genes, lead to mutation and cancer