Psychology Unit 4 Flashcards


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1

Associative Learning

Learning that two events occur together, Pavlov

2

Classical Conditioning

Links two or more stimuli and anticipate events, Pavlov

3

Unconditioned stimulis

Unconditionally triggers a response

4

Unconditioned response

Naturally occuring response to an unconditioned stimulus.

5

Conditioned stimulus

Trained triggered response

6

Conditioned response

Trained response to trained stimulus

7

Acquisition

When a behavior, such as a conditioned response has been learned

8

Higher order conditioning

A form of classical conditioning in which a previously conditioned stimulus is used to produce further learning.

9

Extinction

When we un-learn or stop associating two things.

10

Spontaneous Recovery

When the learned behavior appears again after extinction.

11

Generalization

The tendency to respond in the same way to different but similar stimulus.

12

Discrimmination

The ability to tell the difference between conditioned stimuli and other stimuli.

13

Operant Conditioning

Associating actions with consequences, Skinner

14

Law of Effect

Behaviors followed by more favorable responses become more likely and behaviors followed by less favorable responses become less likely.

15

Punishment

Seeks to lower the recurrence of a behavior.

16

Reinforcement

Target behavior increases.

17

Fixed Ratio

Reinforce behavior after a set specific number of responses.

18

Fixed interval

Reinforce after a fixed specified amount of time.

19

Variable ratio

Provide reinforcers after an unpredictable number of responses.

20

Variable interval

Reinforce the first response after unpredictable time intervals.

21

Social Cognitive learning

System of observing people and doing whats normal

22

Encoding

Learning and processing information

23

Spacing Effect

Distributed study to have long term memory

24

Chunking

Organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

25

Iconic memory

Photographic memory

26

Echoic memory

Auditory memory

27

Mood Congruent Theory

The idea that you are more likely to recall an item if you are in the same mood when you encoded the item

28

Semantic Network Theory

This theory explains how our brain might form new memorizes by combining already existing memories.

29

Phonome

The smallest sound unit

30

Intelligence

Mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.

31

Crystallized intelligence

Our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills.

32

Convergent thinking

Believing that there is only one correct answer to a problem

33

Divergent thinking

Thinking there are multiple answers to a problem

34

Framing

Presenting issues differently to affect people decisions and judgements.

35

Intuition

Automatic feeling or thought

36

Social/observable learning

learning by watching others, Albert Bandura

37

Mental set

We expect old problem solving methods to work again in a different situation.

38

Availibility Heuristic

Estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory