Physiology 1/13 Flashcards


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1

acetaminophen

analgesic, antipyretic, causes liver damage

2

ex.) of things that are both vasoactive and chemotactic

bacterial products, serum peptides, C3a and C5a (complement fragments), Mast cells

3

cytokines

naturally occurring chemicals that produce inflammation

4

what mediates systemic response

interleukin-1, TNF

5

humira

TNF blocking antibody medication, used to treat rheumatoid arthritis

6

what produces interleukin-1

dendritic cells and macrophages

7

Functions of interleukin-1 and TNF

  • induce fever through messages to the hypothalamus
  • act on thyroid/adrenal glands to divert energy toward defense
  • reabsorb muscle proteins to make antibodies
  • cause leukocytosis
  • cause liver to produce acute phase proteins
  • trigger adaptive immunity

8

haptogloblin

acute phase protein made in liver, absorbs iron to keep it away from bacteria

9

CRP

acute phase protein made in liver, activates complement and identifies foreign material to phagocytose

10

uncontrolled inflammation effect on the lungs

fluid buildup, difficulty breathing

11

cytokine storm

too many cytokines produced, causes damage to the body

12

steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

  • more potent
  • mixed mechanisms
  • can block phospholipase (block VFs and CFs at the source)
  • decrease neutrophil adhesion to capillary walls
  • decrease IL-1
  • decrease leukocytes

13

consequence of anti-inflammatory drugs

more vulnerable to infection

14

non-drug anti-inflammatory pharmaceutical tactic

use ice to cause vasoconstriction

15

diseases involving chronic inflammation

tuberculosis, arthritis, hepatitis

16

angiogenesis

new blood pathway formed as a response to hypoxia

17

fix connective tissue

fibroblasts

18

granuloma in liver

cirrhosis of the liver

19

granuloma in the lungs (tuberculosis)

tubercle

20

effects of chronic inflammation

  • too many macrophages - destruction of healthy cells
  • connective tissue buildup/granulomas
  • stem cell mutation/cancer
  • neutrophils explode and release ROS, oxidize host genes, lead to mutation and cancer