three steps of cellular respiration
glycolysis - Krebs Cycle - Electron Transport Chain
Protein aggregates that build up and contribute to neuron toxicity
amyloid and tau
bonds that hold amino acids together
the two ends of amino acid chains
N-terminal and C-terminal
(amino group) and (carbonyl group)
basic structure of an amino acid
what does the side chain do/not do?
does not participate in peptide bonds, helps proteins fold and give unique shapes and properties
How do proteins decide how to fold?
they always want to fold in a way that is energetically favorable
is the rotation around peptide bonds free or restricted?
The four main non-covalent interactions that promote protein folding
hydrogen bonding, electrostatic interactions, London Dispersion Forces/Van der Waals, hydrophobic forces
how chaperone proteins assist in folding proteins
they use ATP to clamp proteins, either to promote or inhibit a fold
least favorable state of an amino acid chain
definition of kinetically trapped
stuck in an unfavorable fold, no way to escape without external help