The 3 goals of inflammation
Limit damage, remove debris, repair injury
the 3 markers of inflammation
redness, heat, swelling
Main function of vasoactive factors
cause arteriole dilation, bringing more blood to the area of injury
complement proteins function
to mark and/or kill bacteria
How water oozes out of the capillaries
How water oozes back into the capillaries
why swelling occurs at injured sites
proteins are let out of capillaries, so osmotic pressure is lost and fluid remains outside of the blood stream
vasoactive factors' effect on respiratory and GI tracts
cause smooth muscles around them to contract
reason why diarrhea, difficulty breathing, and runny nose might occur during illness
increase in mucus secretions as a result of vasoactive factors
the three main functions of platelets
form blood clots, release histamine and other VFs and CFs, release PDGF
main function of chemotactic factors
to attract neutrophils and monocytes (macrophages) to the site of injury
acts as a site for the escape of neutrophils and monocytes from the capillaries
the movement out of the blood stream to an injured area
the two sources of VFs and CFs
platelets and the breakdown/modification of plasma membrane fatty acids
what is arachidonic acid?
a phospholipid with a chain of 20 carbons, 4 double bonds
arachidonic acid is a source for what three important classes of proteins?
leukotrienes - vasodilation
prostaglandins - pain
thromoxanes - clotting
function of lipoxygenase (LOX)
produce leukotrienes from arachidonic acid
function of cyclooxygenase (COX)
produce prostaglandins (and thromboxanes?) from arachidonic acid
Three examples of NSAID drugs
aspirin, naproxen, ibuprofen
downside of aspirin
reduces swelling and therefore reduces immune response to injury, increasing risk of infection
what do NSAIDs block?
COX (cyclooxygenase enzymes
How acetyl group in aspirin blocks COX
noncompetitive, nonreversible inhibition
How salicylic acid in aspirin blocks COX
competitive, reversible inhibition
Why drugs stop working
the liver cleans toxins by adding glycine to chemicals like salicylic acid, so they can no longer fit in the COX active site
half life of aspirin
the three main subjects of physiology
function, regulation, and integration
What is homeostasis?
Keeping the internal environment constant, even while the external environment changes
What are the three homeostatic solutions?
Cytoplasm, plasma, and interstitial fluid
What makes blood cells different in terms of internal environment?
Most cells have ISF as their internal environment, but blood cells have plasma
What does homeostasis keep constant? List at least 3.
Temperature, oxygen concentration, pH, glucose concentration, ionic composition
What to human cells do in extreme conditions?
They die if they cannot maintain homeostasis
How does the body react to cold conditions?
Negative feedback signals for capillaries to constrict, muscles to contract in shivering
How does the body react to hot conditions?
Negative feedback signals for sweat to be released
What is the body's response to tissue damage?
What are the types of tissue damage? List at least 3.
Physical, chemical, infectious disease, metabolic, immunological
Damage causes the release of two different types of molecules. What are they?
Vasoactive factors and chemotactic factors
Acts as a site to stop neutrophils and releases them from the blood stream to the site of injury
Detect damage and "sound the alarm" in the body
Macrophages and dendritic cells
How do neutrophils escape the BM of capillaries?
Secrete collagenase to drill through
Secreted by macrophages and dendritic cells
Function of interleukin-1 (basic)
Signals immune system
Reason why inflammation is red
Smooth muscle relaxation causes vasodilation, blood flow is closer to the surface of the skin
Bronchial smooth muscle response to surrounding cell injury
vasoconstriction, restricts air flow
Epithelial "goblet" cell response to surrounding cell injury