Erkison believed a healthy outcome during infancy does not depend on the amount of food or oral stimulation offered but rather on the _________ of caregiving. What are some characterisitics?
Relieving discomfort promptly and sensitively, holding the infant gently, waiting patiently until the baby has had enough milk, and weaning when the infant shows less interest in breath or bottle.
What factors affect parental of personal happinness?
current life conditions (another baby), and culturally valued child-rearing practices
What is the Psychological conflict of the first year?
Basic trust vs. mistrust, the balance of care must be sympathetic and loving in order to have a positive outcome.
What is the difference between the trusting and mistrusting baby?
The trusting baby expects the world to be good and gratifying, so he feels confident about exploring, and the mistrustful baby cannot count on the kindness and compassion of others, so she protects herself by withdrawing from people and things around her.
What is the conflict of toddlerhood in the second year? How is it resolved?
Autonomy versus shame and doubt, resolved when parents provide suitable guidance and reasonable choices
Basic trust and autonomy grow out of warm, sensitive parenting and reasonable expectations for impulse control starting in the _______ year
What are the 3 attainments that Erikson regarded as those that emotions help organize?
Social relationships, exploration of the environment, and discovery of the self
What are the Basic emotions?
happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust--They are universal in humans and other primates and have a long evolutionary history of promoting survival.
Babies' first 2 arousal states of emotions are?
attraction to pleasant stimulation and withdrawal from unpleasant stimulation
What are the stages of smiling?
First born: Smile
Social smile: Broad grin 6-10 weeks
Laugh: 3-4 months: Reflects faster processing of information
Around the middle of the first year, infants smile and laugh more when interacting with familiar people, a preference that strengthens the parent-child bond. Between 8 and 10 months, the smile then becomes ________.
Deliberate social signal: Infants more often interrupt their play with an interesting toy to relay their delight to an attentive adult.
Anger characteristics of a baby include?
General distress from birth
Anger 4-6 months increases in frequency and intensity
_____ and ______ contribute to a rise in angry reactions.
cognitive and motor development
When does fear rise in a baby? When does stranger anxiety occur?
The 2nd half of the first year. 8-12 months
The most frequent fear, shown to meeting new adults.
What does stranger anxiety depend on?
Temperament, past experiences with strangers, and the current situation
Once wariness appears in a baby first developing walking, babies use the familiar caregiver as a ____ _____, or point from which to explore, venturing into the environment and then returning for emotional support.
Depression that emerges or strengthens after childbirth but fails to subside as the new mother adjust to hormonal changes in her body and gains confidence in caring for her baby
About ______ % of women experience chronic depression.
What happens to baby's who's mothers are depressed?
sleep poorly, less attentive to their surroundings, elevated levels of cortisol (stress) attachment difficulties, irritable mood
Some researches claim that infants respond in kind to others' emotions through a fairly automatic process of _____ _____.
emotional contagion<-- During early infancy
Others, however, believe that infants acquire these emotional contingencies through _____ _____---for example, learning that a smile generally triggers pleasurable feedback and that distress prompts a comforting response.
Around 4-5 months, infants become sensitive to the structure and timing of face-to-face interactions, and they start too....
Recognize others facial expressions
This is something that occurs with emotions 8-10 months in. It is actively seeking emotional information form a trusted person in an uncertain situation. Relying on others' emotional reactions to appraise situation. Caregivers can use this to teach children how to act.
____ _____ helps young children move beyond simply reacting to others' emotional messages. They use those signals to guide their own actions and to find out about others' intentions and preferences.
What are the self conscious emotions?
Shame, embarrassment, guilt envy, and pride
Emotions that involve injury to or enhancement of out sense of self
When we have harmed someone and want to correct the wrongdoing.
When we have negative feelings about our behavior and we want to retreat so others will no longer notice out feelings
ashamed and embarrassed
Reflects delight in the self's achievements, and we are inclined to tell others what we have accomplished.
When do children become aware of self as separate and unique, and this requires adult instruction about when to feel emotions.
middle of the second year
Refers to the strategies we use to adjust our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals
What does emotional self-regulation require?
effortful control, voluntary, effortful control of emotions
Emotional self-regulation grows over the ____ year, with brain development, and caregivers contribute to child's self-regulation style.
Rapid development of the ___ _____ of the cerebral cortex increases the baby's tolerance for stimulation, and parents improve the capacity for the stimulation by initiating face-to-face play and attention to objects.
When we describe one person as cheerful and "upbeat" another as active and energetic, and still others as calm, cautious, or prone to angry outbursts, we are referring to _______.
Early-appearing, stable individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation.
Refers to quickness and intensity of emotional arousal, attention, and motor activity.
Refers to strategies that modify reactivity.
Who's nine dimensions served as the first influential model of temperament
Thomas and Chess
What are the three 4 different classes of children and their percentages for the structure of temperament?
Easy-40% Quickly establishes regular routines in infancy, is generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiences
Difficult-10% is Irregular in daily routines, is slow to accept new experiences, and tends to react negatively and intensely
Slow-to-warm-up child-15% is inactive, shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli, is negative in mood, and adjusts slowly to new experiences
35% is unclassified
What is the self-regulatory dimension for temperament? The capacity to voluntarily suppress a dominant response in order to plan and execute a more adaptive response
For the biological basis of temperament there are inhibited, shy children and uninhibited, Social children.
The ______ child reacts negatively, withdraws from stimuli, has high heart rates, stress hormones and stress symptoms, and higher right hemisphere frontal cortex.
The _____ child reacts positively, approaches new stimuli, has lower heart rates and stress hormones/symptoms, and higher left hemisphere frontal cortex activity.
Inhibited and then uninhibited
____________ develops with age.
Stability of Temperament.
The stability of of temperament is _____ to _____.
Low to moderate
Stability of temperament is best indicated after age ____.
Factors that affect the extent to which a child's temperament remains stable are->
1. development of the biological systems on which temperament is based
2 The child's capacity for effortful control
3. The success of her efforts which depend on the quality and intensity of her emotional reactivity
_______ ________ are responsible for about half of individual differences.
______ and ______ explain differences between cultures and boys and girls when concerning genetic influences. Boys are more active and daring, more irritable when frustrated, and slightly more impulsive. Girls have greater compliance, better school performance, and lower incidence of behavior problems.
ethnic and sex differences
What are some environmental influences that effect temperament?
nutrition, caregiving, cultural variations, gender stereotyping, role of siblings
Thomas and Chess proposed a _______ to describe how temperament and environment together can produce favorable outcomes. It involves creating child-rearing environments that recognize each child's temperament wile encouraging more adaptive functioning.
Effective parenting depends on what?
life conditions, good parental mental health, marital happiness, and favorable economic conditions
The strong affectionate tie we have with special people in our lives that leads us to feel pressure when we interact with them and to be comforted by their nearness in times of stress.
Recognizes the infant's emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival
Ethological theory of attachment
Birth to 6 weeks. Built in signals--grasping, smiling crying and gazing into adult's eyes. Help bring newborn babies into close contact with other humans who comfort them. Babies recognize smell and voice but not yet attached
6 weeks - 6-8 months. Respond differently to a familiar caregiver than to a stranger. Still not protest when separated, but begin to develop a sense of trust
Attachment in the making
Attachment to the familar caregiver is evident. Babies display separation anxiety, becoming upset when their trusted caregiver leaves.
"clear-cut" attachment phase
Rapid growth in representation and language permits toddlers to understand some of the factors that influence the parent's coming and going and to predict her return. As a result, separation protest declines. Now children negotiate with the caregiver, using requests and persuasion to alter her goals.
Formation of a reciprocal relationship
Set of expectations about the availability of attachment figures and their likelihood of providing support during times of stress.
internal working model
A widely used lab procedure for assessing the quality of attachment between 1 and 2 years of age
60%-These infants use the parent as a secure base. When separated, they may or may not cry, but if they do, it is because the parent is absent and they prefer her to the stranger.
15% These infants seem unresponsive to the parent when she is present. when she leaves, they usually are not distressed, and they react to the stranger in much the same way as to the parent.
10% Before separation, these infants seek closeness to the parent and often fail to explore. When the parent leaves, they are usually distressed, and on her return they combine clinginess with angry, resistive behavior, sometimes hitting and pushing.
15% This pattern reflect the greatest insecurity. At reunion, the infants show confused, contradictory behaviors
Suitable for children between 1 and 4 years, depends on home observation. A security score is computed
Despite such cultural variations, the _____ is still the most common attachment quality in all societies studied.
What are the factors that might influence attachment security?
Opportunity to establish a close relationship, quality of caregiving, the baby's characteristics, and family context.
What 2 things does quality of caregiving consider?
Sensitive caregiving and interaction synchrony
Responding promptly, consistently, and appropriately to infants and holding them tenderly and carefully refers to?
Separated experiences of secure and insecure babies. It is best described as a sensitively tuned "emotional dance" in which the caregiver responds to infant signals in a well-timed, rhythmic, appropriate fashion
Family circumstances concerning factors that affect the attachment security is base on what?
parents' internal working models. Parents bring to the family context their own history of attachment experiences, from which they construct internal working models that they apply to the bonds they est. with their babies.
Children tend to develop multiple attachments with who?
Fathers, siblings, grandparents, and professional caregivers
What are some things that could encourage affectionate ties between infants and their preschool siblings?
Spend extra time with the older child, handle sibling misbehavior with patience, and discuss the baby's wants and needs
In many cultures fathers are seen as ____ and mothers are seen as _____.
What are some important factors in attachment with fathers?
Sensitivity, warmth, family attitudes/relationships
What are some important things to consider when you have siblings?
Adjustment for preschoolers, rich emotional relationship between children, parents must promote positive relationships
As infants feel their own touch, and watch their limbs move, they experience what?
Occurs around age 2, identifying one's self as a individual being.
The ability to understand another's emotional state and feel with that person, or respond emotionally in a similar way
Showing clear awareness of caregivers wishes and expectations and can obey simple requests and commands.
Waiting for an appropriate time and place to engage in a tempting act.
delay of gratification
Reflects the greater capacity of one side of the brain-the individual's dominant cerebral hemisphere-to carry out skilled motor action
At the rear and base of the brain is the ______, a structure that aids in balance and control of body movement.
A structure in the brain stem that maintains alertness and consciousness
An inner-brain structure that plays a vital role in memory and in images of space that help us find our way.
A large bundle of fibers connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
The ______, located at the base of the brain, plays a critical role by releasing two hormones that induce growth.
_____ is necessary for development of all body tissues except the central nervous system and the genitals.
Prompts the thyroid gland in the neck to release thyroxine, which is necessary for brain development and for GH to have its full impact on body size.
A growth disorder that usually appears between ages 2 and 15. Typical characteristics include decreased GH secretion, very short stature, immature skeletal age, and serious adjustment problems. Caused by emotional deprivation
Infectious disease can be due to _______ and _______.
malnutrition, and inability to get immunizations
Because of their higher activity level and greater impulsivity and risk taking, boys are _____ times more likely to be injured than girls.
What are three attentions to family conditions that can prevent childhood injuries?
Relieve crowding in the home, providing social supports to ease parental stress, and teaching parents to use effective discipline.
By age 2, preschoolers ___ become more smooth and rhythmic--secure enough that soon they leave the ground, at first by running and later jumping, hopping, galloping, and skipping.
What are the most common injuries during early and middle childhood?
auto and traffic accidents, drownings, and burns
A stage that spans the years 2 to 7.
Piaget's Pre-operational stage.
Failure to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from one's own.
Egocentrism is responsible for preoperational children's __________. The belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions
Refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes.
mental actions that obey logical rules
When children focus on one aspect of a situation, neglecting other features.
The organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences.
An inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point.