the three main subjects of physiology
function, regulation, and integration
What is homeostasis?
Keeping the internal environment constant, even while the external environment changes
What are the three homeostatic solutions?
Cytoplasm, plasma, and interstitial fluid
What makes blood cells different in terms of internal environment?
Most cells have ISF as their internal environment, but blood cells have plasma
What does homeostasis keep constant? List at least 3.
Temperature, oxygen concentration, pH, glucose concentration, ionic composition
What to human cells do in extreme conditions?
They die if they cannot maintain homeostasis
How does the body react to cold conditions?
Negative feedback signals for capillaries to constrict, muscles to contract in shivering
How does the body react to hot conditions?
Negative feedback signals for sweat to be released
What is the body's response to tissue damage?
What are the types of tissue damage? List at least 3.
Physical, chemical, infectious disease, metabolic, immunological
Damage causes the release of two different types of molecules. What are they?
Vasoactive factors and chemotactic factors
Acts as a site to stop neutrophils and releases them from the blood stream to the site of injury
Detect damage and "sound the alarm" in the body
Macrophages and dendritic cells
How do neutrophils escape the BM of capillaries?
Secrete collagenase to drill through
Secreted by macrophages and dendritic cells
Function of interleukin-1 (basic)
Signals immune system
Reason why inflammation is red
Smooth muscle relaxation causes vasodilation, blood flow is closer to the surface of the skin
Bronchial smooth muscle response to surrounding cell injury
vasoconstriction, restricts air flow
Epithelial "goblet" cell response to surrounding cell injury