Study of life
Characteristics of life
Energy processing, regulation, order, evolutionary adaptation, response to the environment, Reproduction, and growth and development.
Being able to process food into energy. Consists of Nutrition, transport, cellular respiration, and metabolism. It is a Characteristic of life.
Maintaining a balance in the body, homeostasis. It is a characteristic of life.
Cells make tissues, tissues make organs, organs make organ systems, and organ systems make organisms. It is a characteristic of life.
The population has to change over time to better suit their ever-changing environment. It is a characteristic of life.
Response to the environment
All living things respond to stimuli in their environment, it is a characteristic of life.
Something that causes a response.
Getting rid of cellular waste
All living things need to produce new organisms. It is not a characteristic of life, but if organisms don't reproduce, they will die off.
Increase in cell number through mitosis
Stages of growth
Building large molecules using smaller ones
Steps of the scientific method
Observe/define a problem
Make a hypothesis based on the observations
Test you hypothesis
Analyze your data and make a conclusion
the variable that the scientist chooses to change during the experiment. For example, the amount of water given to a plant
the variable that changes when the independent variable changes. For example, the height of the plant based on the amount of water given to it.
The group that is changed in an experiment. Only 1 variable can change at a time, or else you don't know what is causing the change in your results
The group in which the independent variable isn't changed, usually used as a comparative tool.
The things that don't change during an experiment. For example, if the experiment was the height change of a plant based on the amount of water given to it, the constants would be the amount of light and food given to the plant.
A hypothesis that has not been disproven yet.
Something that is proven by nature.
The relationship between organisms and their environment
Characteristics of an ecosystem
requires a constant flow of energy and a cycle of materials. Contains both biotic and abiotic factors
Nonliving things that still affect the ecosystem. Ex. light, temp, water, soil, pH, etc.
all of the living factors in an environment
Organisms that look similar and can produce fertile offspring
all members of a species living in a certain area
Different populations living in the same area
Community of organisms and the abiotic factors in an area
the environment in which an organism lives
the role an organism fills in an environment
A type of symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit.
A type of symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is not affected.
A type of symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other if harmed.
Organisms that make their own food
Organisms that eat other organisms for food.
A type of heterotroph that only eats plants
A type of heterotroph that only eats other animals
A type of heterotroph that eats both plants and animals
A type of heterotroph that decomposes dead organic matter to get its nutrients
transfer of energy from the lowest trophic level to the highest. Very simple
Feeding level of an organism, ex. producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers, etc.
Interconnected food chains that are complex
Pyramid of Energy
A representation showing how 90% of energy is lost each time as it moves up a trophic level. (Rabbits have energy, but they lose most of it in heat, so the snake only gets some of the energy the rabbit had, not all of it)
Carbon cycling from oceans, to the atmosphere, to land. It is important because we need carbon and we need to be able to recycle it to survive.
Nitrogen cycling. Important because we can't use atmospheric nitrogen, so it has to get converted along the way.
The area the organism lives in
number of organisms in a unit of area
The growing population is affected by birth, death, and moving. In a perfect habitat, the population would grow exponentially.
Exponential growth doesn't occur naturally because there are not enough resources or space. Organisms grow fast at first, but level out around their carrying capacity.
Factors that do more damage if population density is higher
factors that aren't affected by population density.
The total number of organisms an environment can hold depending on the amount of resources and space available
The amount of different species that exist in an ecosystem. The more diverse, the better. We are threatening this by many things, the main one being habitat destruction
A type of precipitation is caused when rain is mixed with water, increasing its pH. This harms trees and anything else that can't get to shelter. Caused by the burning of fossil fuels.
Ground Level Ozone
Caused by nitrogen oxides mixing with other compounds. Ozone is very harmful to humans and Charlotte has a problem with it.
The increase of a material as you go up the food chain. Ex. Plankton gets 1 g of toxins while absorbing nutrients. Small fish eat 10 small fish, they get 10g of toxins. Medium fish eat 100 small fish, they get 1kg of toxins. Sharks eat 100 medium fish, they get 100kg of toxins. Humans eat these tertiary predators, harming them a lot. To stop this, stop emitting toxins into ecosystems.
Humans have introduced species into places that they don't belong, so they don't have any natural competitors and they thrive and block out everything else.
Pig waste is kept in big lagoons. This is harmful because it could overflow and get into the groundwater.
Ozone layer depletion
chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) break down the ozone layer. This causes more and more UV radiation to get through which can causes cancers.
Very bad in NC, runoff from polluted areas enters bodies of water, killing organisms.
Age structure graph
A graph that shows the number of people of different ages. Rapid growth has a wide base and narrow top. Slow growth has similar amounts of young and old. Zero growth is more of a rectangle. Negative growth looks upside down.