the process of moving molecules from areas of high concentration to low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
diffusion of water from areas of high concentration of water molecules to low concentration of water molecules. (Remember that the amount of solute present can affect this. )
Diffusion of molecules that uses a channel protein to move the molecules into or out of the cell.
movement of molecules from areas of low concentration to high concentration (against the concentration gradient)
Requires a special transport protein
a type of active transport that brings large molecules into the cell. The cell membrane envelops the particle and is pushed into the cell.
cell eating (taking in large solid particles by endocytosis)
cell drinking (taking in large droplets of liquid into the cell by endocytosis)
removing large particles from the cell. The particle is enclosed in a vesicle and the phospholipids of the vesicle fuse to the cell membrane and push the contents out of the cell.
transport of molecules that moves with the concentration gradient
does not require energy
includes diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion
Energy used for chemical reactions
process that takes place in the chloroplast and converts radiant energy into chemical energy (glucose)
discs in chloroplast that contain the chlorophyll
Where the light dependent reactions occur
stacks of thylakoid discs in the chloroplast
the liquid portion of the chloroplast where the light independent reactions occur.
the chemical process that transforms the chemical energy in glucose into the energy used for cellular reactions (ATP)
Two Stages of Cellular Respiration (when Oxygen is present)
2. Aerobic Respiration
How much ATP is generated from 1 glucose during Aerobic Cellular Respiration"?
How much ATP is generated from 1 glucose if oxygen is not present?
the organelle where aerobic respiration takes place
has cristae (electron transport chain where most ATP is produced)
has matrix (Krebs Cycle occurs)
means splitting sugar
first step in cellular respiration
takes place in the cytoplasm
makes two ATP
Molecules involved in energy metabolism
- Energy storage: store energy in a stable form: glucose
- Energy for reactions: Usable form of energy: ATP
- Electron carriers: carry high energy electrons temporarily to aid in photosynthesis and cellular respiration: NADH, NADPH, FADH2
- Electron acceptors: accepts electrons delivered by the electron carriers: Oxygen
reactants of photosynthesis
carbon dioxide and water (presence of sunlight)
products of photosynthesis
glucose and oxygen
reactants of cellular respiration
glucose and oxygen
products of cellular respiration
carbon dioxide, water and ATP
solution that is highly concentration
cells placed in this solution will shrivel
solution that has little to no solute concentration
cells placed in this solution will swell and burst
environment where there water leaving and entering the cell is at equillibrium