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1

SUPPORT

PROVIDES STRUCTURAL SUPPORT FOR ENTIRE BODY.
PROVIDE A FRAMEWORK

2

STORAGE OF MINERALS

THE CALCIUM SALTS OF BONES REPRESENT A VALUABLE MINERAL RESERVE THAT MAINTAIN NORMAL CONCENTRATIONS OF CALCIUM AND PHOSPHATE IONS IN BODY FLUIDS. CALCIUM IS THE MOST ABUNDANT MINERAL IN THE HUMAN BODY. (2.2-4.4LBS)

3

BLOOD CELL PRODUCTION

RED BLOOD CELLS,WHITE BLOOD CELLS AND PLATELETS ARE PRODUCED IN THE RED MARROW, WHICH FILL THE INTERNAL CAVITITES OF MANY BONES. (FOUND IN LONG BONES)

4

PROTECTION

DELICATE TISSUES AND ORGANS ARE OFTEN SURROUNDED BY SKELETON ELEMENTS.
1.)THE RIBS PROTECT THE HEART AND LUNGS
2.)THE SKULL ENCLOSES THE BRAIN
3.)THE VERTEBRAE SHIELD THE SPINAL CORD
4.)THE PELVIS CRADLES DELICATE DIGESTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS.

5

LEVERAGE

MANY BONES OF THE SKELETON FUNCTION AS LEVERS THAT CAN CHANGE THE MAGNITUDE AND DIRECTION OF THE FORCES GENERATED BY SKELETON MUSCLES. THE MOVEMENTS PRODUCED RANGE FROM THE DELICATE MOTIONS OF A FINGERTIP TO POWERFUL CHANGES IN THE POSITION OF THE ENTIRE BODY.

6

IN LONG BONES, FAT IS FOUND WHERE?

MEDULLARY CAVITY (INNERMOST-PART) OR MARROW CAVITY IS A SPACE WITHIN THE HOLLOW SHAFT. IN LIFE, IT IS FILLED WITH BONE MARROW, A HIGHLY VASCULAR TISSUE. RED BONE MARROW IS HIGHLY VASCULAR AND INVOLVED IN THE PRODUCTION OF BLOOD CELLS. YELLOW BONE MARROW IS ADIPOSE TISSUE IMPORTANT IN THE STORAGE OF ENERGY RESERVES.

7

TYPE OF BONES FOUND IN THE FOREARM?

LONG BONES

8

WHAT IS LACUNAE IN BONE?

SMALL SPACES BETWEEN CONCENTRIC LAMELLAE THAT CONTAIN OSTEOCYTES. (LA-KOO-NE)(LITTLE LAKES)

9

WHAT IS FOUND IN IT (LACUNAE)

CONNECT LACUNAE WITH ONE ANOTHER AND WITH CENTRAL CANALS TO CREATE A SYSTEM OF INTERCONNECTED CANALS THROUGHOUT THE BONE TO ALLOW MANY ROUTES FOR NUTRIENTS AND OXYGEN TO REACH THE OSTEOCYTES AND REMOVAL OF WASTES.

10

WHAT IS A GAP JUNCTION?

PERMIT CHEMICAL COMMUNICATION THAT COORDINATES THE ACTIVITIES OF ADJACENT CELLS.

11

WHAT IS CANALICULI?

ARM LIKE EXTENSIONS WHERE THEY TOUCH THEY CREATE GAP JUNCTIONS.

12

HEMOPOIESIS TYPICALLY OCCURS IN WHAT TISSUE?
WHICH IS FOUND WHERE?

1.)RED BONE MARROW
2.)SPONGY BONE

13

WHICH COMPONENTS OF THE BONE MATRIX ARE ORGANIC?

HYDROXYAPATITE-IS VERY HARD BUT INFLEXIBLE AND BRITTLE. HYDROXYAPATITE IS THE MOST COMMON CALCIUM SALT FOUND IN THE BODY.

14

MOST BONES DEVELOP FROM?

HYALINE CARTILAGE

15

FIBERS OF THE BONE MATRIX ARE COMPOSED OF?

COLLEGEN

16

WHAT IS FOUND IN COMPACT BONE BUT NOT IN SPONGY BONE?

1.)THERE IS A CENTRAL CANAL IN COMPACT BONE.
2.)THERE IS NO CENTRAL CANAL IN SPONGY BONE.

17

APPOSITIONAL GROWTH VERSES INTERSTITIAL GROWTH?

IN APPOSITIONAL GROWTH THE CARTILAGE ENLARGES BY THE ADDITION OF CARTILAGE TO THE OUTER SURFACE.
INTERSTITIAL GROWTH, THE CARTILAGE EXPANDS FROM WITHIN. BOTH INTERSTITIAL GROWTH AND APPOSITIONAL GROWTH OCCUR DURING DEVELOPMENT, BUT INTERSTITIAL GROWTH PREDOMINATES, IN NORMAL ADULTS, CARTILAGE GROWTH NO LONGER OCCURS.

18

A ROUNDED HOLE THROUGH A BONE IS CALLED A?

FORAMEN

19

FRACTURES

ARE NAMED USING VARIOUS CRITERIA INCLUDING THEIR EXTERNAL APPEARANCE, THEIR LOCATION, AND THE NATURE OF THE CRACK OR BREAK IN THE BONE.

20

GREENSTICK FRACTURES

SUCH AS THIS FRACTURE OF THE RADIUS ONLY ONESIDE OF THE SHAFT IS BROKEN, AND THE OTHER IS BENT. THIS TYPE OF FRACTURE GENERALLY OCCURS IN CHILDREN, WHOSE LONG BONES HAVE YET TO OSSIFY FULLY.

21

TRANSVERSE FRACTURES

SUCH AS THIS FRACTURE OF THE FEMUR, SHATTER THE AFFECTED AREA INTO A MULTITUDE OF BONY FRAGMENTS.

22

OPEN OR COMPOUND FRACTURES

PROJECT THROUGH THE SKIN. THESE FRACTURES WHICH ARE OPRIOUS ON INSPECTION, ARE MORE DANGEROUS THAN CLOSED FRACTURES DUE TO THE POSSIBILITY OF INFECTION OR UNCONTROLLED BLEEDING.

23

FUNCTION OF THE AXIAL SKELETON?

THE AXIAL SKELETON PROVIDES FRAMEWORK THAT SUPPORTS AND PROTECTS THE BRAIN, THE SPINAL CORD, AND THE ORGANS IN VENTRAL BODY CAVITIES. IT ALSO PROVIDES AN EXTENSIVE SURFACE AREA FOR THE ATTACHMENT OF MUSCLES THAT (1)ADJUST THE POSITION PARTS OF THE HEAD, NECK AND TRUCK. (2) PERFORM RESPIRATORY MOVEMENTS (3) STABILIZE OR POSITION PARTS OF THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON THAT SUPPORT THE LIMBS. THE JOINTS OF THE AXIAL SKELETON PERMIT LIMITED MOVEMENT BUT THEY ARE VERY STRONG AND HEAVILY REINFORCED BY LIGAMENTS.

24

(4) MAJOR SUTURES, AND THEY CONNECT WHICH BONE TO WHICH BONE.

CORONAL SUTURE-ATTACHES THE FRONTAL BONE TO THE PARIETAL BONES OF EITHER SIDE. OCCIPITAL,PARIETAL, AND FRONTAL BONES FORM THE CAIVARIA (KAL-VA-RE-UH) OR SKULLCAP.

25

(4) MAJOR SUTURES, AND THEY CONNECT WHICH BONE TO WHICH BONE.

SQUAMOUS (SKWA-MUS) SUTURE ON EACH SIDE OF THE SKULL FORMS THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN THE TEMPORAL BONE AND THE PARIETAL BONE OF THAT SIDE.

26

(4) MAJOR SUTURES, AND THEY CONNECT WHICH BONE TO WHICH BONE.

SAGITTAL SUTURE-EXTENDS FROM THE LAMBDOID SUTURE TO THE CORONAL SUTURE BETWEEN THE PARIETAL BONES.

27

(4) MAJOR SUTURES, AND THEY CONNECT WHICH BONE TO WHICH BONE.

LAMBDOID SUTURE-(LAM-DOYD)ARCHES ACROSS THE POSTERIOR SURFACE OF THE SKULL THIS SUTURE SEPARTES THE OCCIPITAL BONE FROM THE TWO PARIETAL BONES. ONE OR MORE SUTURAL BONES (WORMIAN BONES) MAY BE PRESENT ALONG THE LAMBDOID SUTURE.

28

BONES OF THE CRANIUM (NAMES) PAIRED OR SINGLE?
CRANIUM (8) BONES

A)OCCIPITAL BONES (1) SINGLE
B)PARIETAL BONES (2) PAIRED
C)FRONTAL BONES (1) SINGLE
D)TEMPORAL BONES (2) PAIRED
E)SPHENOID (1) SINGLE
F)ETHMOID (1) SINGLE

29

BONES OF THE FACE (NAME), PAIRED OR SINGLE?
FACE (14) BONES

A)MAXILLARY BONES (2) PAIRED
B)PALATINE BONES (2) PAIRED
C)NASAL BONES (2) PAIRED
D)INFERIOR NASAL CONCHAE (2) PAIRED
E)ZYGOMATIC BONES (2) PAIRED
F)LACRIMAL BONES (2) PAIRED
G)VOMER (1) SINGLE
H)MANDIBLE (1) SINGEL

30

HOW MANY BONES IN THE AXIAL SKELETON,APPENDICULAR,& ADULT SKELETON?

A)AXIAL SKELETON-80 BONES
B)APPENDICULAR SKELETON-126 BONES
C)ADULT SKELETON-206 BONES

31

ALVEOLAR PROCESS'S?

THE ALVEOLAR PROCESSES ARE THE PORTIONS OF THE MAXILLAE AND MANDIBLE THAT BORDER THE MOUTH AND SUPPORT THE UPPER AND LOWER TEETH.

32

BONES OF THE ZYGOMATIC ARCH?

THE ZYGOMATIC PROCESS OF THE TEMPORAL BONE ARTICULATES WITH THE TEMPORAL PROCESS OF THE ZYGOMATIC BONE, AND TOGETHER FORM THE ZYGOMATIC ARCH, OR CHEEKBONE.

33

FOUR CURVES OF THE SPINAL COLUMN PRIMARY VS. SECONDARY?

THE PRIMARY CURVES DEVELOP BEFORE BIRTH AND SECONDARY CURVES AFTER BIRTH.
1)CERVICAL CURVE-2NDARY,DEVELOPS AS THE INFANTS LEARN TO BALANCE THE WEIGHT OF THE HEAD ON THE VERTEBRAE OF THE NECK.
2)THORACIC CURVE-PRIMARY CURVE, ACCOMMODATES THE THORACIC ORGANS.
3) LUMBAR CURVE-A 2NDARY CURVE, BALANCES THE WEIGHT OF THE TRUNK OVER THE LOWER LIMBS;IT ACCOMMADATES THE ABDOMINOPELVIC ORGANS.

34

NUMBER OF VERTEBRAE AND THERE REGIONS?

24 VERTEBRAES-
CERVICAL VERTEBRAE REGION (7)
THORACIC VERTEBRAE REGION (12)
LUMBAR VERTEBRAE REGION (5)
SACRUM AND COCCYX

35

NUMBER OF RIBS AND NAME OF SECTIONS?

EACH OF US REGARDLES OF SEX HAS 12 PAIR OF RIBS.
1)VERTEBRSTERNAL RIBS 1-7(TRUE RIBS)ARE CONNECTED TO THE STERNUM BY INDIVIDUAL
2)VERTEBROCHONDRAL RIBS 8-10(FALSE RIBS)ARE CONNECTED TO THE STERNUM BY SHARED COASTAL CARTILAGES.
3)FLOATING RIBS 11 & 12 HAVE NO CONNECTION WITH THE STERNUM ONLY WITH THE VERTEBRAE AND MUSCLES OF THE BODY WALL.

36

SYNARTHROSIS

(NO MOVEMENT) AT A SYNARTHROSIS, THE BONY EDGES ARE QUITE CLOSE TOGETHER AND MAY EVEN INTERLOCK. THESE EXTREMELY STRONG JOINTS ARE LOCATED WHERE MOVEMENT BETWEEN THE BONES MUST BE PREVENTED.

37

AMPHIARTHROSIS

(LITTLE MOVEMENT) AN AMPHIARTHROSIS PERMITS MORE MOVEMENT THAN A SYNARTHROSIS, BUT IS MUCH STRONGER THAN A FREELY MOVABLE JOINT. THE ARTIULATING BONES ARE CONNECTED BY COLLAGEN FIBERS OR CARTILAGE.

38

SYNDESMOSIS

(SIN-DEZ-MO-SIS A BAND OR LIGAMENT) BONES ARE CONNECTED BY A LIGAMENT. ONE EXAMPLE IS THE DISTAL ARTICULATION BETWEEN THE TIBIA AND FIBULA

39

SYMPHYSIS

THE ARTICULATING BONES ARE SEPARATED BY A WEDGE OR PAD OF FIBROUS CARTILAGE. THE ARTICULATION BETWEEN THE TWO PUBIC BONES (THE PUBIC SYSPHYSIS) IS AN EXAMPLE OF A SYMPHSIS.

40

DIATRHROSIS OR SYNOVIAL (SI-NO-VE-UL)

JOINTS PERMIT A WIDER RANGE OF MOTION THAN DO OTHER TYPES OF JOINTS. THEY ARE TYPICALLY LOCATED AT THE ENDS OF LONG BONES, SUCH AS THOSE OF THE UPPER AND LOWER LIMBS.

41

ARTICULAR CARTILAGES

RESEMBLE HYALINE CARTILAGES ELSEWHERE IN THE BODY. HOWEVER, ARTICULAR CARTILAGES HAVE NO PERICHONDRIUM AND THE MATRIX CONTAINS MORE WATER THAN THAT OF OTHER CARTILAGES.

42

JOINT CAPSULE

OR ARTICULAR CAPSULE IS DENSE AND FIBROUS AND IT MAY BE REINFORCED WITH VARIOUS ACCESSORY STRUCTURES SUCH AS TENDONS OR LIGAMENTS

43

SYNOVIAL FLUID

WITHIN THE JOINT CAVITY PROVIDE LUBRICATION, CUSHIONS SHOCKS, PREVENTS ABRASION, AND SUPPORTS THE CHONDROYTES OF THE ARTICULAR CARTILAGES. EVEN IN A LARGE JOINT SUCH AS THE KNEE, THE TOTAL QUANTITY OF SYNOVIAL FLUID IN A JOINT IS NORMALLY LESS THAN 3 ML.

44

SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE

LINES MOBILE JOINT CAVITIES BUT DOES NOT COVER THE OPPOSING JOINT SURFACES.

45

SYNOVIAL FLUID FUNCTIONS

1)LUBRICAITON-WHEN PART OF AN ARTICULAR CARTILAGES IS COMPRESSED DURING MOVEMENT, SOME OF THE SYNOVIAL FLUID IS SQUEEZED OUT OF THE CARTILAGE AND INTO THE SPACE BETWEEN THE OPPOSING SURFACES. THIS THIN LAYER OF FLUID MARKEDLY FRICTION BETWEEN MOVING SURFACES, JUST AS A THIN FILM OF WATER REDUCES FRICTINO BETWEEN A CAR'S TIRES AND A HIGHWAY.

46

SYNOVIAL FLUID FUNCTIONS

2)NUTRIENT DISTRIBUTION-THE SYNOVIAL FLUID A JOINT MUST CIRCULATE CONTINUOUSLY TO PROVIDE NUTRIENTS AND WASTE DISPOSAL FOR THE CHONDROCYTES OF THE ARTICULAR CARTILAGES. IT CIRCULATES WHENEVER THE JOINT MOVES AND HE COMPRESSION AND REEXPANSION OF THE ARTICULAR CARTILAGES PUMP SYNOVIAL FLUID INTO AND OUT OF THE CARTILAG MATRIX.

47

SYNOVIAL FLUID FUNCTIONS

3)SHOCK ABSORPTION-SYNOVIAL FLUID CUSHIONS SHOCKS IN JOINTS THAT ARE SUBJECTED TO COMPRESSIONS. FOR EXAMPLE, WHEN YOU JOG YOUR KNEES ARE SEVERLY COMPRESSED AND THE SYNOVIAL FLUID DISTRIBUTES THAT FORCE EVENLY ACROSS THE ARTICULAR SURFACES AND OUTWARD TO THE JOINT CAPSULE.

48

SADDLE

SADDLE JOINTS ARE CHARACTERIZED BY TWO BONES THAT FIT TOGETHER IN A MANNER SIMILAR TO A RIDER IN A SADDLE. THIS SORT OF ARTICULATION ALLOWS BENDING MOTION IN SEVERAL DIDRECTIONS WITHOUT SLIDING. THE CARPAL METACARPAL JOINT OF THE THUMB IS AN EXAMPLE OF A SADDLE SYNOVIAL JOINT.

49

GLIDING

ALLOW FOR SMOOTH MOVEMENT IN SEVERAL DIRECTIONS ALONG A PLANE OR OTHER SMOOTH SURFACE. THE ARTICULATION IS LIKE TWO PLATES SLIDING ACROSS EACH OTHER. AN EXAMPLE WOULD BE THE CARPAL BONES OF THE WRIST WHICH FORM A GLIDING SYNOVIAL JOINT.F

50

ELLIPSOID

A SYOVIAL JOINT IN WHICH A CONDYLE IS RECEIVED INTO AN ELLIPITC CAVITY AS THE WRIST JOINT. A CONDYLOID JOINT PERMITS NO AXIAL ROTATION BUT ALLOWS FLEXION, EXTENSION, ADDUCTION, ABDUCTION, AND CIRCUMDUCTION. ALSO CALLED CONDYLOID JOINT

51

HINGE

HINGE JOINTS AS THE NAME IMPLIES, ARE HINGED JOINTS FORMED BETWEEN TWO BONES. A HINGE JOOINT ALLOWS FOR STABLE FLEXION AND EXTENSION WITHOUT SLIDING OR DEVIATION. THE ELBOW JOINT BETWEEN THE HUMERUS AND ULNA IS A HINGE SYNOVIAL JOINT.

52

PIVOT

A PIVOT JOINT IN WHICH ROTATIONAL MOTION OCCURS WITHOUT GLIDING MOVEMENT. THIS TYPE OF JOINT ALLOWS FOR TURNING MOTIONS WITHOUT SIDEWAYS DISPLACEMENTSS OR BENDING. THE JOINT BETWEEN THE FIRST AND SECOND CERVICAL VERTEBRAE (ATLAS-AXIS) IS A PIVOT SYNOVIAL JOINT AND ALLOWS FOR MOST OF THE HEAD'S RANGE OF MOTION WHILE MAINTAINING THE STABILITY OF THE HEAD ON THE NECK.

53

BALL AND SOCKET

BALL AND SOCKET JOINT ALLOW FOR STABLE MOVEMENT IN SEVERAL DIRECTIONS WITHOUT SLIPPAGE. LIKE A SADDLE JOINT, THE BALL AND SOCKET JOINT ALLOWS BENDING IN SEVERAL DIRECTIONS WITHOUT SLIPPING, CREAATING A HIGHLY STABLE STRON JOINT. THE HIP JOINT (FEMUR-ACETABULUM) IS AN EXAMPLE OF A BALL AND SOCKET SYNOVIAL JOINT.

54

CIRCUMDUCTION

MOVING YOUR ARM AS IF TO DRAW A BIG CIRCLE ON THE WALL IS CIRCUMDUCTION. IN THIS MOVEMENT YUR HAND MOVES IN CIRCLE, BUT YOUR ARM DOES NOT ROTATE.

55

EVERSION

IS A TWISTING MOTION OF THE FOOT THAT TURNS THE SOLE INWARD, ELEVATING THE MEDIAL EDGE OF THE SOLE. THE OPPOSITE MOVEMENT IS CALLED EVERSION

56

PLANTAR

PLANTAR FLEXION (PLANTA, SOLE) THE OPPOSITE MOVEMENT, EXTENDS THE ANKLE JOINT AND ELEVATES THE HEEL, AS WHEN YOU STAND ON TIPTOE.

57

DORSIFLEXION

IS FLEXION AT THE ANKLE JOINT AND ELEVATION OF THE SOLE, AS WHEN YOU DIG IN YOUR HEEL.

58

ABDUCTION

(AB-FROM) IS MOVEMENT AWAY FROM THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS OF THE BODY IN THE FRONTAL PLANE. (TAKING AWAY) OR LIKE KIDNAPPING TAKING AWAY FROM.

59

ADDUCTION

(AD-TO) IS MOVEMENT TOWARDS THE LONGITUDINAL AXIS OF THE BODY IN THE FRONTAL PLANE (PULLING TO)

60

ABDUCTION AND ADDUCTION

ALWAYS REFER TO THE MOVEMENTS OF THE APPENDICULAR SKELETON, NOT TO THOSE OF THE AXIAL SKELETON.

61

FLEXION

(FLEK-SHUN) IS MOVEMENT IN THE ANTERIOR-POSTERIOR PLANE THAT REDUCES THE ANGLE BETWEEN THE ARTICULATING ELEMENTS HERE YOU SEE FLEXION AT THE NECK, THE ELBOW AND THE HIP

62

EXTENSION

OCCURS IN THE SAME PLANE AS FLEXION, BUT IT INCREASES THE ANGLE BETWEEN ARTICULATING ELEMENTS WHEN A PERSON IS IN THE ANATOMICAL POSITION, ALL OF THE MAJOR JOINTS OF THE AXIAL AND APPENDICULAR SKELETONS (EXCEPT THE ANKLE) ARE AT FULL EXTENSION.

63

FLEXION AND EXTENSION

ARE USUALLY APPLIED AT THE MOVEMENTS OF THE LONG BONES OF THE LIMBS BUT THEY ARE ALSO USED TO DESCRIBE MOVEMENTS OF THE AXIAL SKELETON. FOR EXAMPLE, WHEN YOU BRING YOUR HEAD TOWARD YOUR CHEST, YOU FLEX THE INTERVERTEBRAL JOINTS OF THE NECK.