sensory system 5 Flashcards


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1
  • collect the sound waves and channel them or send them inwards

external ear

2

which is the skin cartilaginous flap on the outside of our head that surrounds the external auditory meatus

pinna

3

when the sound waves are funneled through the pinna they will hit the

tympanic membrane or the eardrum And the eardrum just like any drum it will vibrate with sound waves and the importance of the tympanic membrane is that it will transmit the vibrations into the middle ear

4

the auditory ossicles will include

Malleus, incus, and stapes

5

Coming out of the inner ear is going to be called the

eustachian tube

6

eustachian tube

will usually be closed at the pharynx but it will open during swallowing and yawning hence why it will help equalize the pressure in your ear when you are landing in a plane etc

7
  • these are muscles that dont contract but they are important in keeping the tympanic membrane and the staples held in place so that way if there are really loud sounds and various vibrations the tympanic does not get damaged and pop out nor will the staples

stapedius and tensor

8
  • cochlea, a vestibule, and a semicircular canal are

bony labyrinth structures and are made out of bone

9

when you open up the bone that includes the bony labyrinth structures such as the cochlea, a vestibule, and a semicircular canal are

membranous labyrinth - which will consist of the cochlear duct, semicircular duct, and the utricle and saccule

10

consist of the cochlear duct, semicircular duct, and the utricle and saccule

membranous labyrinth

11

this will deal with equilibrium and balance

semicircular canals or the vestibule which will include the utricle and saccule, and semicircular ducts

12

membranous labyrinth of the vestibule is the

utricle and saccule

13

hearing will occur in the

bony labyrinth

14
  • will have the scala vestibuli and scala tympani region and the cochlear duct which runs through that bony labyrinth this will be where hearing will occur

cochlea

15

the perilymph fluid will be located where

scala vestibuli

16

this will contain the endolymph

cochlear duct

17

this is important in the transmission of action potentials as a result of sounds

The ____________ has a very high concentration of potassium ions higher than anywhere alse in the body which is important because potassium is going to be the main

endolymph

18

the main depolarizing ion for hearing will be

potassium

19

will be between the basilar membrane and the tectorial membrane

organ of corti

20

has supporting cells which will nourish and protect the hair cells which are the auditory sensory receptors the hairs

organ of corti

21

will be part of the hair cells hence why they are called hair cells cuz they look like they have hairs

Stereocilia

22

sound waves from the pinna are directed towards

vibrate the tympanic membrane and it is this vibration that will varies

23

lower intensity of souch corrolates with

small vibrations

24
  • will start to move the malleus then the incus then the stapes

in the tympanic membrane

25

how is sound amplified

by the time the sound waves gets to the stapes the stapes is vibrating vary fast alot more than what the typanic membrane was vibrating

The auditory ossicles are vibration so much more vigorously becuz you are taking vibrations that are spread over a large area the tympanic membrane and you are putting these vibrations into a smaller are

26

Vibrating the stapes will start to create

fluid waves in the perilymph of the scala vestibuli

waves flow through the perilymp of the scala vestibuli and make their way around into the scala tympani

27

this will vibrate the basilar membrane

the waves of perilymph making their way down the scala tympani

28

its going to be taking the hair cells that are attached to the basilar membrane with the organ of corti and pushes the hair cells up and as it does this it will end up smushing the hair cells against the tectorial membrane

the waves of perilymph of the scala tympani vibrating the basilar membrane

29
  • has a significantly high concentration of potassium ions well more than anywhere else in the body and that's important because you need that potassium to create depolarizing receptors potentials and ultimately action potentials as the result of sound waves

endolymph

30
  • So when that tall stereocilia bends the ______________ pulls its neighbor stereocillia and that neighbor also has a tip link protein that pulls its neighbor

tip link protein

31
  • The endolymph has a significantly high concentration of potassium ions well more than anywhere else in the body and that's important because you need that potassium to create depolarizing receptors potentials and ultimately action potentials as the result of sound waves
  • We had waves being transported through the scala vestibuli into the scala tympani with the perilymph
  • As the perilymph has these waves flowing through it it is taking the basilar membrane and pushing up and as it does this the hair cells are getting smushed against the tectorial membrane specifically the stereocilia are hitting the tectorial membrane
  • And that is what will cause potassium to rush in and depolarization happening and having neurotransmitter release
  • The hair cell is at rest and at rest the potassium is flowing in a little bit here and there into the hair cell and it doesn't really create a significant amount of depolarization so you're not going to have many action potentials getting sent to the primary auditory cortex
  • What will happen when you have a loud enough sound that will push the basilar membrane up and push the hair cells up and when the hair cells get pushed up the tallest stereocilia hits the tectorial membrane and when that hits the tectorial membrane it slides and that will slide and pull all the other stereocilia with it, it does this becuz each stereocilia is connected to their neighbors because of special proteins called tip link proteins
  • So when that tall stereocilia bends the tip link protein pulls its neighbor stereocillia and that neighbor also has a tip link protein that pulls its neighbor
  • Every time you pull a neighbor these mechanoreceptors - with mechanically gated channels open up and potassium rushes into the hair cells down its electrochemical gradient and being positive it's going to significantly depolarize the hair cells and which will then activate voltage gated calcium channels and calcium rushes in and then you will get neurotransmitter release much like what happens and any other neuron
  • When those neurotransmitter release they will bind to specialized receptors on that first order auditory neuron the first neuron of that labeled line
  • The signals will travel through that neuron in the vestibulocochlear nerves to the primary auditory cortices of the cerebrum and you brain now interprets that as sound them to the auditory association after that to interpret that sound as a specific type of sound it is loud or high
  • You do have a few different types of hair cells that you may see you will have outer and inner hair cells
  • The outer hair cells will be only in mammals and will increase the sensitivity of sounds, and without these our hearing is extremely hindered
  • The inner hair cells will be the primary receptor for hearing across all species

process of hearing

32
  • will be only in mammals and will increase the sensitivity of sounds, and without these our hearing is extremely hindered

outer hair cells

33
  • will be the primary receptor for hearing across all species

inner hair cells

34

humans best hearing is between

500 and 5000 hertz

35

pitch is measured in

hertz

36

amplitude is measured in

decibles

37

sound can be damaging at

140 DB

38

vibrate deeper in the cochlear duct along the basilar membrane

low pitch

39

close to the cochlear duct you will get

high pitch

40

how many action potentials are sent to the brain is how we

distinguish high pitch from low pitch