RSE 9

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Overview of the Skeleton: Classification and Structure of Bones and Cartilages
Grade levels:
College: First year
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1

sharp, slender process

spine

2

small rounded projection

tubercle

3

narrow ridge of bone

crest

4

large rounded projection

tuberosity

5

structure supported on neck

head

6

armlike projection

ramus

7

rounded convex projection

condyle

8

narrow depression or opening

fissure

9

canal-like structure

meatus

10

opening through a bone

foramen

11

shallow depression

fossa

12

air-filled cavity

sinus

13

large, irregularly shaped projection

trochanter

14

raised area of a condyle

epicondyle

15

projection or prominence

process

16

The four major anatomical classifications of bones are long, short, flat and irregular. Which category has the least amount of spongy bone relative to its total volume?

long

17

humerus

long

18

phalanx

long

19

parietal

flat

20

calcaneus

irregular

21

rib

flat

22

vertebra

irregualr

23

ulna

long

24

contains spongy bone in adults

epiphysis

25

made of compact bone

diaphysis

26

site of blood cell formation

red marrow cavity

27

major submembranous site of osteoclasts

endosteum and periosteum

28

scientific term for bone shaft

diaphysis

29

contains fat in adult bones

medullary cavity/yellow marrow

30

growth pate remnant

epiphyseal line

31

major submembransou site of osteoblasts

endosteum and periosteum

32

What differences between compact and spongy bone can be seen with the naked eye?

Compact bone appears homogeneous; spongy bone has obvious spaces

33

What is the function of the periosteum?

Protects the bone and is the structure from which blood vessels and nerves enter bone.

34

Trace the route taken by nutrients through a bone, starting with the periosteum and ending with an osteocyte in a lacuna.

Periosteum, perforating canal, central (Haversian) canal, canaliculus, osteocyte.

35

layers of bony matrix around a central canal

concentric lamellae

36

site of osteocytes

lacunae

37

longitudinal canal carrying blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves

central canal

38

minute canals connecting osteocytes of an osteon

canaliculi

39

inorganic salts depostied in organic ground substance

matrix

40

How does the appearance of the chondrocytes int he transformation zone differ from those in the growth zone?

Those int he transformation zone are much larger (hypertrophied).

41

Compare and contrast event s occuring on the epihyseal and disphyseal faces of the epiphyseal plate

Epiphyseal face: cartilage matrix is being laid down. Diaphyseal face: Cartilage matrix is being eroded and replaced by bone matrix.

42

What is the function of the organic matrix in bone?

To provide flexibility (and strength)

43

Name the important organic bone component

Collagenic and elastic fibers and ground substances; cells.

44

Clacium salts form the bulk of the inorganic material in bone. What is the function of the calcium salts?

To provide hardness and strength

45

Baking removes [a] from bone. Soaking bone in acid removes [b].

A.) water
B.) Calcium salts

46

Which is responsible for bone structure?

both contribute

47

supports the external ear

elastic cartilage

48

between the vertebrae

fibrocartilage

49

forms the walls of the voice box (larynx)

hyaline cartilage

50

the epiglottis

elastic cartilage

51

articular cartilages

hyaline cartilage

52

meniscus in a knee joint

fibrocartilage

53

connects the ribs to the sternum

hyaline cartilage

54

most effective at resisting compression

fibrocartilage

55

most springy and flexible

elastic cartilage

56

most abundant

hyaline cartilage