Development Through Life: A Psychosocial Approach: Infancy-Development Through Life (first 24 mo) Chapter 6 Flashcards


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HDFS 1070 chapter 6
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human development chapter 6, psychology, psychotherapy, counseling, developmental, lifespan development
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1

Babies naturally know how to crawl. They do it without practice as soon as you put them down on the floor. (True or False-if False correct answer is given)

False

2

Babies cannot hear in utero.(True or False-if False correct answer is given)

False

3

Newborns can differentiate sweet, sour, bitter, and salty tastes.(True or False-if False correct answer is given)

True

4

A normative sequence of motor development is grasping, sitting, crawling, walking, and standing.(True or False-if False correct answer is given)

True

5

A child's threshold for arousal which could be evidenced at the psychological, emotion, or motor level is called reactive-regulation. (True or False-if False correct answer is given)

False, responsiveness

6

A child's self-regulator capacities, or behavioral inhibition, may range from bold to brazen to inhibited and cautious. (True or False-if False correct answer is given)

True

7

Children react differently in a variety of situations, thus revealing that child temperament is a complex picture of the interaction of child and environment characteristics. (True or False-if False correct answer is given)

True

8

The ability to crawl has no relevance to the development of attachment. (True or False-if False correct answer is given)

False

9

Stranger anxiety is considered to be a normal development behavior that demonstrates a child's growing preference for the object of attachment.(True or False-if False correct answer is given)

True

10

Once an attachment has been formed, children become less and less comfortable about separating from the object of attachment.(True or False-if False correct answer is given)

False, they become more confident in separating

11

In the United States, about two-thirds of the mother-infant dyads who have been evaluated in the Strange Situation show evidence of an anxious-avoidant attachment.(True or False-if False correct answer is given)

False, secure attachment

12

The exploratory behavior of babies who show an anxious-resistant attachment is noticeably disrupted by the caregiver's departure.(True or False-if False correct answer is given)

True

13

The kinds of quality of relationships in the first six months of life have no relevance in the formation of attachments.(True or False-if False correct answer is given)

False

14

Cross-cultured research on infant attachment supports that there is little variation in parent-child interactions across racial and ethnic groups.(True or False-if False correct answer is given)

False

15

According to Piaget, reflexes are the built-in, genetic origins of intelligence.(True or False-if False correct answer is given)

True

16

Categorization requires the ability to name objects.(True or False-if False correct answer is given)

False, information processing (grouping colors or shapes)

17

According to Piaget, sensorimotor adaptation is the chief mechanism governing the growth of intelligence during infancy.(True or False-if False correct answer is given)

True

18

Adults have measurable emotional reactions to infant crying including changes in heart rate and breathing which indicate that the cry serves as a stressor. (True or False-if False correct answer is given)

True

19

In the first 2 years of life, infants have states of arousal but no true expression of emotions. (True or False-if False correct answer is given)

False

20

Emotions provide a way for adults to assess an infants inner state.(True or False-if False correct answer is given)

True

21

Infant reflexes, such as the startle response provide a biological basis for mistrust.(True or False-if False correct answer is given)

True

22

One way newborns reduce the intensity of distress is by turning their heads away.(True or False-if False correct answer is given)

True

23

In normal mother-infant dyads, communication becomes increasingly mismatched as the baby matures.(True or False-if False correct answer is given)

False

24

In the intervention study that focused on distressed mother-infant dyads at risk for attachment disturbances, it was found that it was not possible to repair these attachment relationships.(True or False-if False correct answer is given)

False

25

Fathers tend to view their infants as less cognitively and socially competent than mothers do.(True or False-if False correct answer is given)

True

26

Strategies for dealing with intense emotions

Emotional regulation

27

Rhythmic, well-times, appropriately responsive interactions

Synchrony

28

A time of maximum sensitivity to or readiness for the development of a particular skill or behavior pattern

Critical period

29

A strong, affectionate bond that develops between infants and their caregivers

Social attachment

30

The ability of two people to meet each other's needs and share each other's concerns and feelings

Mutuality

31

Feelings of fear or sadness associated with the departure of the attachment figure

Separation anxiety

32

An emotional sense that the environment is capable of meeting one's basic needs and that one is worthy of the love of others

Trust

33

Relatively stable characteristics of response to environment stimuli, largely under genetic control

Temperament

34

The ability of two or more people to know what one other is experiencing

Intersubjectivity

35

A sense of unpredictability in the environment and suspicion about one's own worth or doubt that one's needs will be met

Mistrust

36

A scheme acquired during the sensorimotor stage of development in which infants become aware that an object continues to exist when it is hidden or moved from place to place

Object permanence

37

In Piaget's theory of development , the first stage of cognitive growth during which schema are established on the basis of sensory and motor experiences

Sensoryimotor intelligence

38

Sensory experiences can strengthen certain neural pathways in the infant brain while less used pathways may disappear. This is called________.

Habituation

39

Which of the following sensory/motor systems is LEAST well developed in newborns?
-taste
-voluntary motor activity
-vision
-hearing

Voluntary motor activity

40

Which of the following motor skills is NOT acquired during the first year of life?
-standing alone
-running
-rolling over
-crawling

Running

41

Infants who are inactive and have mild, low-key reactions to new environmental stimuli, are generally negative in mood, and have a hard time adjusting to new situations. They are considered to fall within which temperament category?
-insecure
-difficult
-secure
-slow to warm up

Difficult

42

During the second half of the first year, two signs of a child's growing attachment to a specific other person are__________.

Stranger anxiety and separation anxiety

43

One year old Ben often returns to his father repeatedly for a hug when playing with his trucks on the family room floor. Returning to his father shows that Ben is using his father as a_______.

Secure base

44

An example of a formed attachment is_______.

An infant tries to maintain physical contact with the object of attachment

45

Corey actively explores the living room at his aunt's house while his mother is sitting on the couch. When she leaves to get a drink in the kitchen, Corey fusses, but he calms down quickly as soon as she returns. Corey may be best described as having a(n)________attachment.

Secure

46

According to Piaget's theory, what is the primary mechanism underlying the growth of intelligence during infancy?

Sensorimotor adaptation

47

The first phase in the development of casual schemes in the phase of______.

Circular reactions

48

An example of sensorimotor intelligence is____.

Sucking differently from a bottle and from a breast

49

6 month old Ricky discovers that if he lets his spoon drop it will fall to the floor and make a noise. He repeats this for delight. This behavior is________.

Sensorimotor causality

50

__________ is among the earliest emotions expressed in infancy before 6 months of age.

Pleasure

51

_____________ illustrates how members of a cultural group build a shared view of reality during infancy.

Intersubjectivity

52

In infancy trust refers to the infant's sense that he or she is ________.

Valued

53

Mistrust may develop if a caregiver is unusably harsh while meeting an infant's needs or if_____________.

the caregiver cannot identify the child's needs and respond appropriately to them.

54

________ is a central process for resolving the psychosocial crisis of infancy

Mutuality with the caregiver

55

A critical period refers to____________.

a time of maximal readiness for the development of some behavior.

56

Within the process of communication the pattern of coordination, mismatch, and repair builds a sense of ________ between the infant and caregiver.

mutuality

57

In their parental roles, mothers in the United States tend to emphasize ________ while fathers tend to emphasize ________.

the process of development; product