NSCA's Essentials of Personal Training: Structure and Function of the Muscular, Nervous, and Skeletal Systems Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 4 weeks ago by ryankutz
1 view
updated 4 weeks ago by ryankutz
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:

1

The activation of a muscle to generate force.

muscle contraction

2

The type of muscle that attaches to bones, causing then to move around joints.

card image

skeletal muscle

3

The layer of connective tissue that surrounds each muscle.

card image

epimysium

4

A bundle of muscle fibers.

card image

fascilulus

5

The layer of connective tissue that surrounds each fascilulus.

card image

perimysium

6

The layer of connective tissue that separates adjacent muscle fibers within a fascilulus.

card image

endomysium

7

The plasma membrane of a muscle fiber.

card image

sarcolemma

8

Electrical impulses conducted by the sarcolemma of a muscle fiber.

action potentials

9

The cytoplasm of a muscle fiber.

card image

sarcoplasm

10

The only direct source of energy for muscle actions.

adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

11

The site of aerobic ATP production within the muscle cell.

card image

mitochondria

12

The site of calcium storage and release within the muscle cell.

card image

sarcoplasmic reticulum

13

Protein structures that run parallel to the length of the muscle fiber.

card image

myofibrils

14

Bundles of proteins comprising each myofibril.

card image

myofilaments

15

The two contractile proteins that primarily comprise myofilaments.

card image

myosin (thick) and actin (thin)

16

The protein that maintains the position of the myosin filament relative to actin.

titin

17

The two regulatory proteins that mediate interactions between myosin and actin.

card image

tropomysin and troponin

18

The protein that ensures the actin filaments are the correct length.

nebulin

19

The basic contractile unit of muscle.

card image

sarcomere

20

The line to which actin filaments are anchored, representing the boundaries of each sarcomere.

card image

Z-line

21

The band determined by the width of the myosin filament, providing the "dark" striation of skeletal muscle.

card image

A-band

22

The zone within area of the A-band that contains myosin, but not actin.

card image

H-zone

23

The dark line in the middle of the H-zone which helps align adjacent myosin filaments.

card image

M-line

24

The band that spans the distance between myosin filaments of two adjacent sarcomeres, providing the "light" striation of skeletal muscle.

card image

I-band

25

The specialized interface between the nervous and muscle systems.

neuromuscular junction

26

The region of the muscle cell membrane adjacent to the axon terminal.

motor endplate

27

The space between the axon terminal and motor endplate.

synaptic cleft

28

The most widely accepted theory of muscle action, which postulates that muscles shorten and lengthen due to changes in the amount of overlap of actin and myosin filament.

sliding filament theory

29

The excitatory neurotransmitter released at the neuromuscular juntion.

card image

acetylcholine (ACh)

30

Structures within the axon terminal which store ACh when the neuron is at rest.

card image

synaptic vesicles

31

The ion that binds to troponin, causing a shift in tropomysin that exposes the binding sites on actin.

card image

calcium

32

The attachment formed between the binding sites on actin and the myosin head.

card image

crossbridge

33

The enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of the phosphate bond in ATP to form ADP and Pi.

card image

adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase)

34

The muscle action that results when the force generated by a muscle is greater than the external resistance.

concentric muscle action

35

The muscle action that results when the force generated by a muscle is less than the external resistance.

eccentric muscle action

36

The muscle action that results when the force generated by a muscle is equal to the external resistance.

isometric muscle action

37

Muscle pain occurring 24 to 48 hours following exercise most likely caused by tissue damage and inflammation.

delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS)

38

The ability of a muscle fiber to produce ATP aerobically.

oxidative capacity

39

The protein that delivers oxygen from the muscle cell membrane to the mitochondria.

myoglobin

40

The amount of force that a muscle fiber can produce relative to it's size.

specific tension

41

Muscle fibers with high oxidative capacity and fatigue resistance.

type I (slow oxidative)

42

Muscle fibers with moderate oxidative capacity and anaerobic capacity.

type IIa (fast oxidative glycolytic)

43

Muscle fibers with high anaerobic capacity and contractile force.

type IIx (fast glycolytic)

44

The division of the nervous system comprised of the brain and spinal cord.

central nervous system

45

The division of the nervous system which lies outside of the central nervous system.

peripheral nervous system

46

The division of the peripheral nervous system which relays impulses from the CNS to the periphery.

motor division

47

The division of the peripheral nervous system which relays impulses from the periphery to the CNS.

sensory division

48

The division of the nervous system responsible for activating skeletal muscles.

somatatic nervous system

49

The division of the nervous system responsible for involuntary functions.

autonomic nervous system

50

The basic unit of the nervous system.

card image

neuron

51

Neurons that conduct impulses from the CNS to muscles.

motor (efferent) neurons

52

Neurons that conduct impulses from the periphery to the CNS.

sensory (afferent) neurons

53

The site of communication between two neurons, or a neuron and a gland or muscle cell.

synapse

54

Projections from the neuron cell body that recieve signals from other neurons.

card image

dendrites

55

A sensory organ found in skeletal muscles which is sensitive to lengthening force.

card image

muscle spindle

56

The reflex mediated by muscle spindles, which results in muscle fiber contraction in response to rapid changes in lengthening force.

myotatic (stretch) reflex

57

A sensory organ located at the junction of the muscle and tendon which is sensitive to changes in the contractile force.

Golgi tendon organ

58

The reflex mediated by the Golgi tendon organ, which results in muscle fiber relaxation in response to rapid changes in contractile force.

card image

Golgi tendon (inverse stretch) reflex

59

A motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers that it innervates.

motor unit

60

An increase in the number of motor units that are activated to generate force.

motor unit recruitment

61

An increase in the firing rate of motor units that are activated to generate force.

rate coding

62

The first motor units recruited are smaller, type I motor units, followed by larger type IIa, then type IIx.

size principle of motor unit recruitment

63

The portion of the skeletal system composed of the skull, vertebral column, sternum, and ribs.

card image

axial skeleton

64

The portion of the skeletal system composed of the bones of the upper and lower limbs.

card image

appendicular skeleton

65

The constant, dynamic breaking down of bone by osteoclasts and building up of bone by osteoblasts.

bone remodeling

66

Hard, dense bone found primarily on the outer layers of the shafts of long bones.

card image

cortical (compact) bone

67

Less dense bone found primarily in the interior of long bones, vertebrae, and the head of the femur.

card image

cancellous (spongy) bone

68

The synthesis of blood cells.

hematopoisis

69

A condition in which the bones become weak and brittle.

osteoporosis

70

Connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone.

tendons

71

Connective tissue that attaches bones to other bones.

ligaments

72

What is the name of the connective tissue that surrounds skeletal muscle?

  1. epimysium
  2. endomysium
  3. perimysium
  4. fascicle

A. epimysium

73

How many neuromuscular junctions does each muscle fiber have?

  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  4. 4

A. 1

74

Which of the following branches of the nervous system is responsible for activating skeletal muscles?

  1. sensory
  2. autonomic
  3. afferent
  4. somatic

D. somatic

75

Which division of the skeleton contains the skull and vertebral column?

  1. axial skeleton
  2. appendicular skeleton
  3. central skeleton
  4. peripheral skeleton

A. axial skeleton

76

Which of the following connective tissues connects muscle to bone?

  1. ligament
  2. tendon
  3. cartilage
  4. collagen

B. tendon