Chapters 1,3,6,7, and 10 review
What is the definition of health?
Total functioning of a person's living experience; complete mental, physical, and social well being, not just the absence of disease and infirmity. [Considers the whole person.]
What is the definition of illness?
It is made up of both the subjective experience of the individual and the physical manifestation of disease.
What is the definition of wellness?
A positive state in which incremental increases in health can be made beyond the midpoint. **Such increases involve improved physical and mental health states.
Determine between primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.
Primary prevention: involves health promotion and protection, such as education and/or immunizations.
Secondary prevention: involves case-finding measures like screening, limit disability, and stopping the disease process before it worsens.
Tertiary prevention: involves the use of people to their fullest possible extent, therapy, rehabilitation, and the use of a sheltered colony (i.e. rehabilitation nursing home)
What is Healthy People 2010's initiative?
1. Increase quality and years of healthy life
2. Eliminate health disparities
What are some of the nurse's roles in health promotion?
1. Advocate: to strive and ensure that all persons receive high-quality, appropriate, and cost-effective care.
2. Care manager: to prevent duplication of services and to reduce costs
3. Consultant: to provide knowledge about health promotion and disease prevention to individuals and groups
4. Deliverer of services: known as the core role of the nurse, they deliver health services like health education, flu shots, and counseling in health promotion
5. Educator: to inform others using a variety of methods as a primary prevention technique to avoid the major causes of disability and death today
6. Healer: to help individuals integrate and balance the various parts of their lives. To sense and identify what is important to that person, and incorporate that insight into a care plan that helps the person develop their own capacity to heal
7. Researcher: to constantly strive to understand and interpret research findings to enhance the quality and value of individual care. Then, use these findings as their foundation for clinical decision-making.
Identify the four models of health:
1. Clinical model: defined by absence of illness -- signs and symptoms of a disease; people who use this model may not seek preventive health services or they may wait until they are very ill to seek care.
2. Role performance model: defines individuals' ability to perform social roles, such as work, family, and social roles.
3. Adaptive model: describes people's ability to adjust positively to social, mental, and physiological change in the measure of their health.
4. Eudemonistic model: emphasizes the interactions between physical, social, psychological, and spiritual aspect of life and the environment that contribute to goal attainment and create meaning; it is a very holistic view of health.
First nurse statistician, founder of modern nursing. Fought for cleanliness, against overcrowding, and lack of ventilation.
1st Public Health Nurse
Developed Henry St. Settlement, NYC that trained nurses, provided care for families, and developed education programs for the community
Four main factors influencing health promotion?
Nursing, health, person, and environment
What nursing theory was Madeleine Leininger known for?
Transcultural Theory: we need to understand a person's culture in order to provide them better care
What nursing theory was Jean Watson known for?
Theory of Human Caring: If we don't show we care, even in a small degree, we aren't going to be effective as nurses.
What nursing theory was Sister Callista Roy known for?
Adaptation Theory: Is the patient able to adapt to change, holistically? It's all about helping the person move to obtain as much independence as possible.
What nursing theory was Dorothea Orem known for?
Self-Care Theory: Puts an emphasis on motivating people's behavior. There are different levels of self-care that the nurse functions within; using different compensatory/supportive modes depending on the person's ability to perform self-care activities.
Explain the nursing paradigm.
The nursing paradigm is a cycle in which nursing, the person, health, and environment/situation all reflect on each other and are used in assessment.
Know these health promotional models:
1. Pender Health Promotion Model
2. Health Belief Model
3. Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change
---See images on web/paper handouts
Be able to understand and define the types of healthcare settings and services:
1. Hospital Based
2. Clinic Based
5. Home Care
6. Extended Care
7. Assisted Living
8. Respite Care
10. Adult Day Care
What are the main characteristics of an HMO and a PPO? How are they different?
HMO: independent prepayment plans, least costly, provide fewer selection of care providers
PPO: "brokers" between insurers and health care providers, to control costs members must pick the PPO's selected providers, or face a higher charge. ***Also, in PPO's the physicians do not necessarily communicate with each other like in an HMO.
Differences between Medicare and Medicaid?
Medicare: federal health insurance program that finances medical for people over 65, disabled individuals who qualify for social security benefits, and those with end-stage renal disease.
Medicaid: health insurance program available to certain low-income individuals and families who fit into an eligibility group that is recognized by fed & state law. It pays providers directly if they participate w/ the Medicaid program.
What is the overall meaning of the term "nursing process"?
The systematic approach to reduce or eliminate the individual's health problem.
A = Assessment
D = Diagnosis
P = Planning
I = Implementation
E = Evaluation
What is the NANDA (North American Nursing Diagnosis Association) definition of "nursing diagnosis"?
Life processes as well as actual or potential health problems.
What is the difference between nursing diagnoses and medical diagnoses?
Medical diagnosis is based on the physiologic or medical condition. Nursing diagnosis on the other hand is based upon the response to the alteration in health (medical condition).
Describe health promotion on the individual's level.
This involves collecting necessary data, analyzing the data, identifying a nursing diagnosis, projecting outcomes, prescribing interventions, and evaluating effectiveness. Then going back and reassessing, reordering priorities, setting new goals, and revising the nursing plan.
Define "nursing process" on the family level.
To observe the physical surroundings firsthand during home visits, monitor family unit rituals/roles/interpersonal interactions, and understanding that families collaborate with nursing in all phases of the individual's process.
Define the family from a "systems perspective" or systems theory.
Systems theory: explains the patterns of living among the individuals who make up family systems. In systems theory, behaviors and family members' responses influence patterns. (Basically from a functionalist perspective)
Define the family from a "developmental perspective".
Building off of Erikson's theory of development, we identify stages of the family life cycle and critical family developmental tasks. For example, events such as marriage, childbirth, and aging move families through new stages. The nurse must understand and adapt to the fact that each new stage requires adaptation and new responsibilities.
Define the family from a "risk-factor" perspective.
The nurse must reduce these risk factors, and estimate possible outcomes: 1) lifestyle; 2) biological factors; 3) environmental factors; 4) social, psychological, cultural, and spiritual dimensions; and 5) the health care system.
What is the definition of "health education"?
Any combination of planned learning experiences based on sound theories that provide individuals, groups, and communities the opportunity to acquire information and the skills needed to make quality health decisions.
Transtheoretical model of change:
Useful for determining where person is in relation to making a behavior change.
**be able to describe each
Social learning/cognitive theory:
Puts an emphasis on self-efficacy, or efficacy beliefs, on health behavior. Describes the roles of reinforcement and observational learning in explaining health behavior change. Modeling can be used to demonstrate the desired behavior.
Health belief model:
Paradigm used to predict and explain health behavior.
Determine between the three different domains of learning. Cognitive, psychomotor, and affective.
Cognitive: Understanding, building on/learning knowledge. I.e. a client carefully selecting the food for a specific diet plan.
Psychomotor: Developing physical skills and complex actions. Being able to demonstrate something.
Affective: Recognizing something's values/beliefs and patterns that affect progress. I.e. a client verbalizing the importance of measuring his blood glucose at specific times.