PETH Quarter exam ch 1&2 Flashcards

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Passive Ventilation

When the lungs expel the air when the pressure of the alveolar is
higher than the atmospheric pressure.

*When the lungs expel the air, and the pressure in the alveolar is higher than the atmospheric pressure.


Active Respiration

When exhalation is forced using the internal intercostal and
abdominal muscles.

*When exhalation is forced by using the abdominal muscles


Brain Stem

Includes the lower part of the brain that connects to brain the spinal cord

*The lowest part of the brain that connects the brain and the spinal cord


What is CO2?

This would be considered as carbon dioxide which is the waste
product of cellular metabolism.

*CO2 is known as carbon dioxide which is the waste product of cellular metabolism


Describe how ventilation changes during a graded exercise?

a) Ventilation changes during a graded exercise because of the increase in expired
ventilation that occurs during exercise which would be proportional to the increase in
volume of oxygen that is consumed in the tissue.
b) The muscles that are exercising, would consume more oxygen which
would increase in VA and would allow for the arterial PO2 and PCO2 to remain


Why is CO2 an important factor when exercising?

a) It’s an important factor because it is able to control ventilation.
b) Another point would be since CO2 is one of the factors that increase the
movement of oxygen from the arterial blood into the tissue.
c) CO2 with other things such as increased concentration of H+ ions stimulate the
inspiratory center in direct proportions to the body’s metabolic needs.
d) These things can occur when the exercises that are done continues to become
harder and the temperature of the muscle is increased.


How does internal respiration differ from external

External respiration is the exchange of gasses with the
external environment that occurs in the lungs. Internal
respiration is the gas exchange with in the body that
occurs in the tissue


What is an anatomical dead space?

The volume of air located in the respiratory tract that are
responsible for conducting air into the alveoli and
respiratory bronchioles


What is the Bohr effect? How is it related to blood carbon

When the pH in the blood lowers and reduces the
hemoglobin’s affinity for oxygen. Secondary to the
increase in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide


Why does hemoglobin combine with oxygen in the lungs
and release oxygen to the tissues?

Hemoglobin is the protein molecule that is responsible for
carrying oxygen. This helps generates the energy
necessary for cell survival


Explain in your own words "Ventilation Control During Exercises"?

-If there is an increase in ventilation that is expired during exercise it would be proportional to the increase in the volume of oxygen that would be consumed in the tissues. The arterial PO2 and PCO2 would be constant as the muscles that are exercising consume more oxygen which causes an increase in the VA.