DIKI Flashcards


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1

Tubular epithelial cell damage

Direct cellular toxicity or ischemia to the renal tubules

2

Hemodynamically Mediated Kidney Injury

Results from an acute decrease in intraglomerular pressure

3

Obstructive Nephropathy

Kidney injury from deposition or precipitation within the renal tubules and/or collecting system

4

Glomerular Disease

Direct cell toxicity or immune-mediated injury to the glomerulus

5

Tubulointerstitial Disease

Disease occurs in the renal interstitium rather than the tubules

6

Renal Vasculitis

Inflammation of the vessel wall, capillaries, or glomeruli in the kidney

7

Thrombosis

Vascular endothelial proliferation and swelling affecting the renal capillaries and arterioles

8

Cholesterol Emboli

Showers of cholesterol crystals lodge in small diameter arteries of the kidney

9

Causes of pseudo-nephrotoxicity:

Trimethoprim

10

Is associated with an increased risk of nephrotoxicity when used with piperacillin/tazobactam:

Vancomycin

11

Has an FDA-approved medication that helps prevent nephrotoxicity for the medicine:

Cisplatin

12

Is associated with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus:

Lithium

13

Direct tubular epithelial cell toxicity caused by increased tubular cell membrane permeability caused by an interaction with ergosterol in the cell membrane:

Amphotericin-B

14

Increased drug concentrations within the proximal tubular epithelial cells leads to cell sloughing from the proximal tubular basement membranes

Aminoglycosides

15

Hemodynamically mediated injury secondary to decreased glomerular pressure from efferent arteriolar vasodilation

ACEI/ ARBs

16

Hemodynamically mediated injury secondary to decreased glomerular pressure from afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction

NSAIDS

17

Reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines promote tubular cell injury and death via necrosis and apoptosis

Cisplatin

18

Cytotoxic to renal tubular cells from oxidative stress, apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and autophagy (cleaning out damaged cell)

Polymyxins

19

Tubular epithelial cell damage secondary to renal ischemia and direct cellular toxicity

Contrast Dye

20

What drugs have tubular epithelial cell damage as their MOA?

1. Radiographic contrast media

2. Aminoglycosides

3. Cisplatin

4. Amp B

21

What is the order of toxicity of aminoglycosides?

Neomycin > gentamicin > tobramycin > amikacin

22

Duration of therapy correlates with the decline in GFR?

Lithium

23

Kidney damage is dose related and cumulative?

Cisplatin

24

Nephrotoxicity is the primary dose-limiting toxicity?

Cisplatin

25

Risk factors for vancomycin-related kidney injury?

1. Underlying CKD

2. Obesity

3. High doses/duration

4. Use in critically ill patients

5. Use in combo with pip/tazo

26

When should amifostine pretreatment be considered?

1. Elderly

2. Volume depleted

3. CKD

4. Receiving other nephrotoxic drugs concurrently