STM, Lesson 3 Flashcards


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These notecards cover the main terms, theories and studies from the lesson. See if you know the terms.
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short term memory
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1

STM

Short Term Memory

2

LTM

Long term memory

3

Cognitive approach to Psychology

The believe that minds are similar to computers and the information processing approach.

4

Multi Store Model

Atkinson and Shiffrin (1971) The idea that we have a sensory buffer, a short term memory and a long term memory. Argues that there is a limit in terms of capacity and duration and that the modality is acoustic (sounds.)

5

Working Memory Model

Baddeley and Hitch (1974) Response to the Multi Store Model. Argues that STM is more diverse and can handle visual data. The model proposes that there is: central executive/ phonological loop/ visual spatial scratch pad/ episodic buffer.

6

HM

Brain damaged patient. Clinical data provides support for separate memory systems.

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CW

Brain damaged patient. Clinical data provides support for separate memory systems.

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Duration

Models of STM look at how long information can be held for.

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Capacity

Models look at how much information can be held in STM

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Modality

Models of STM look at which mode information is held in ie visual or acoustic.

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Hypothetical construct

Often used in theories of the brain - an activity of the brain is given a name eg the ego but this does not actually exist in biological terms in the brain.

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Encoding

The stage of memory where information is received from the outside world and held in storage systems.

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storage

holding information in memory banks

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retrieval

getting information back out from memory storage systems

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sensory input

information from the world is attended to from one of the five senses

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sensory memory

the initial part of the memory process where information is attended to and actively perceived.

17

rehearsal

repetition of material to stop it from being lost, usually acoustic

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Miller 1956

In his paper Miller magical number 7 plus or minus 2, showed that STM has 5-9 slots for information

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chunking

technique to encode more information through extending the meaning (semanticity) of material

20

Brown Peterson 1959

Did a study showing subjects trigrams - eg TRC - then got subjects to complete a distractor item - counting back in threes. The longer the counting the worse the recall. Indicates that there is a time limit to STM after which information is lost.

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clinical data

Real life data from patients who are usually affected in some area.

22

central executive

Part of working memory which controls and directs the other subsystems.

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Articulatory Loop

An acoustic system within the working memory model. Holds the information we are about to say.

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Visual spatial scratch pad

part of working memory which deals with visual information. As though it gets written down.

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episodic buffer

part of working memory system which is where acoustic and visual information come together and are held modality free.