Greek Civ Quiz 1 Flashcards


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1

Sir Arthur Evans

  • excavated Knossos and discovered the Minoan civilization
  • believed the Minoans were pacifists as palaces had no walls
  • discovered Linear A tablets proving the Minoans were literate

2

Ahhiyawa

  • Another name for Achaeans or Mycenaeans (Bronze Age), used by the people of the Hittite empire
  • Had diplomatic contracts and military confrontations from the 14th century found near it in Anatolia

3

Cnossus

  • Sir Arthur Evans discovered it on Crete in 1900
  • Some restorations of Cnossus were fake, however the size and magnificence of the palace indicate it was the center of a powerful naval base

4

Hittite Empire

  • Had a vast population that covered Anatolia and Syria, and of Egypt during its brilliant and aggressive “New Kingdom” period (c. 1575–1087 BC)
  • fell apart around 1200 due to invaders from the north

5

Linear A

  • Developed in 1800BCE by the Cretans that had symbols that stood for specific sounds of spoken words/syllables
  • Written on clay tablets and found around Crete and other Aegean islands, and indicates that its purpose was for economic and administrative records

6

Linear B

  • Sir Arthur Evans discovered a more elaborate version of the linear script and named it Linear B
  • in 1950s, after deciphering it, turns out Linear B was a very early version of Greek
  • this language record shows the historical relationship of Greece and Crete as well as the Mycenean palace system and how kingdoms were run by kings

7

Megaron

  • often the ceremonial center used for feasts, councils, and receptions of visitors
  • a large rectangular hall that was the focus of Cretan Complezes

8

Heinrich Schliemann

  • Supposedly obsessed since childhood with the idea of locating the historical city of Troy
  • Actually a criminal and a liar
  • Accidentally invents the concept of archaeological stratigraphy

9

Thera/Akrotiri

  • destroyed by a volcano in 1628; preserved by volcanic ash
  • since it was preserved well, it showed how they had absorbed Cretan art, architecture, religion, dress, and lifestyles into their own island culture
  • north of crete

10

Michael Ventris

  • amateur linguist who served as a cryptographer during World War II
  • with the help of previous scholars (Alice Kober) broke the code on the clay tablets, discovering that Linear B was an early form of Greek

11

Tholos

  • very large stone chamber shaped like a beehive that noble families buried their dead in
  • Treasury of Atreus, the best preserved tholos tomb at Mycenae.

12

Homer

  • composer of the Iliad and the Odyssey
  • deemed greatest poet by later greeks
  • possible that he was an illiterate bard who dictated his long epics to persons who could write

13

Trojan War

  • classically simple folk saga
  • many archeologists hope to find the real Troy, which has caused many excavations
  • Cannot prove that the account Homer had was exactly accurate the way he described it but it did allow for discoveries of a conflict in Troy IV happening

14

Primary Sources

  • Literary Record (ancient sources, i.e. eyewitnesses from the
    ancient world), e.g. Herodotus’ Histories, Plato’s Republic
  • Material Record (art, vases, anything found in excavations, structures)

15

Secondary Sources

  • modern sources by modern Authors

16

Cycladic Figures

  • 10cm-life size
  • mostly female
  • in settlements and graves
  • painted and personalized

17

Grave Circle A

  • Consisted of shallow graves
  • Gendered burials
  • Women buried with pins and jewelry
  • men buried with swords and daggers

18

Wilhelm Dorpfeld

  • found magnificent walls, bastion
  • joined Schliemann at Troy and brought a new systematic efficiency to Schliemann’s efforts
  • in 1885 took charge of excavation, uncovering the first fairly well-preserved Mycenaean palace of the 2nd millennium BC

19

Carl Blegen

  • discovered the “palace of Nestor” in 1939 which confirmed that the Pylos of the legends had been an actual Bronze Age center
  • discovered clay tablets that were well preserve

20

Hisarlik

  • ancient city located in what is known historically as Anatolia
  • had a mighty walled citadel, which archaeologists call Troy VI
  • where gold and artifacts found by Calvert and Schlieman

21

Treasure of Priam

  • gold and other artifacts discovered by classical archaeologists Frank Calvert and Heinrich Schliemann at Hissarlik
  • Schliemann believed it was proof of the true Troy but that may have been made up

22

how did romanticism influence Schliemann’s work in Troy and
Greece? (discuss at least two specific examples, e.g. his childhood,
Treasure of Priam, Grave Circle A, interpretation of the ruins as
Troy)

  1. Treasure of Priam- the treasure 'found' there made him believe he found where Troy was, even though there could be other explanations as to what it was
  2. he was obsessed with the idea of finding Troy so that could've clouded his judgements

23

Map:

Crete

F

24

Map:

Pylos

F

25

Map:

Troy

D

26

Map:

Mycenae

G

27

Map:

Hattuša

B

28

Map:

Cnossos

F

29

Map:

Thera

E