CHAPTER 5 TISSUES Flashcards


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Human Anatomy & Physiology I
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1

What is a tissue?

A group of similar cells with a common function.

2

Name the four types of tissues in the body?

  1. Epithelial tissue
  2. Connective tissue
  3. Muscle tissue
  4. Nervous tissue

3

Define histology?

Histology is the study of structure and function of a tissue

4

Name the function of Epithelial tissue

  1. protection
  2. secretion
  3. absorption
  4. excretion

5

Where can Epithelial tissue be found in the body?

  • cover body surfaces
  • cover & line internal organs
  • compose glands

6

Characteristics of Epithelial tissue

lack blood vessels, cells readily divide, cells are tightly packed

7

What are the functions of Connective tissues?

  • bind
  • support
  • protect
  • fill spaces
  • store fat
  • produce blood cells

8

Where are Connective tissues located?

widely distributed throughout the body

9

Characteristics of Connective tissues?

  • mostly good blood supply
  • cells farther apart than epithelial tissue cells
  • has extracellular matrix in between

10

How do Muscle tissues function?

Muscle tissues function to support movement

11

Where can Muscle tissue be found in the body?

Muscle tissue attaches to bone, They can be found in the walls of hallow internal organs, Heart

12

How can Muscle tissue be characterized?

Able to contract in response to specific stimuli

13

Name the functions of Nervous tissue?

  1. conduct impulses for coordination
  2. regulation
  3. integration
  4. sensory reception

14

Where can Nervous tissue be located?

  • brain
  • spinal cord
  • nerves

15

Characteristics of Nervous tissue?

communication between the cells and other body parts

16

SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL

  • single layer, thin-flat cells
  • lines air sacs (alveoli) & capillaries of Lungs
  • lines blood & lymphatic vessels

17

SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIAL

  • functions in secretion & absorption
  • lines Kidney tubules, Thyroid follicles, ducts of some glands, cover ovaries
  • single layer- cube shaped cells

18

SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIAL

  • single layer- elongated shaped cells
  • Nuclei usually located near basement membrane
  • functions in secretion (mucus) & absorption
  • lines uterus, stomach & intestines

19

PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIAL

  • single layer- appears multi-layered
  • Nuclei at 2 or more layers
  • often has cilia, goblet cells
  • provides protection from infections
  • lines respiratory passageways

20

STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL

  • multiple cell layers- flat outer cells, deeper cuboidal cells
  • thick, protective layer
  • Outer layer of skin is Keratinized
  • lines oral cavity, vagina, anal canal (non-Keratinized)

21

STRATIFIED CUBOIDAL EPITHELIAL

  • 2-3 layers of cube-shaped cells
  • multi-layer protection
  • lines mammary ducts, sweat & salivary glands, and the pancreas

22

STRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIAL

  • top layer- elongated shaped cells
  • deeper layers- cube shaped
  • lines part of male urethra and ducts of exocrine glands

23

TRANSITIONAL (uroepithelium) EPITHELIUM

  • many cell layers- both cube-shaped and elongated cells
  • changes shape with increased tension; stretches
  • forms inner lining of the urinary bladder, ureters, and part of urethra

24

Name the 3 types of cell junctions?

  1. Tight Junctions
  2. Gap Junctions
  3. Desmosomes

25

Junctions are found primarily in epithelial tissue, such as the intestinal brush boarder. Lines the small intestine, kidney, bladder, & blood-brain barrier.

TIGHT Junctions

26

Points of strong adhesions between adjacent cells, structural reinforcement, located among outer skin cells. Also known as spot welds , .

DESMOSOMES

27

Tubular channels between cells that allow molecules to pass through them are called .

GAP Junctions

28

What type of junctions are found between cells of the bladder and why?

TIGHT JUNCTIONS

tight junctions function as a barrier to prevent the leakage of material between cells.

29

What are the 2 types of Glands?

Endocrine glands

Exocrine glands

30

Which glands are ductless and secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream or into tissue fluid?

Endocrine glands

31

These glands secrete products into ducts that open onto the surface?

Exocrine glands

32

What are the most common unicellular exocrine gland that secretes mucus?

Goblet cells

33

What are the 3 types of Exocrine glands?

  1. Merocrine Glands
  2. Apocrine Glands
  3. Holocrine Glands

34

These glands secrete fluid by exocytosis; salivary & sweat glands, pancreas?

Merocrine Glands

35

These glands lose a small part of the cell during secretion- mammary & ceruminous glands?

Apocrine Glands

36

Which cells release the entire cell filled with product in secretion, sebaceous glands (sebum)?

Holocrine Glands

37

What are the 2 Major categories of Connective tissue?

  1. Connective Tissue Proper
  2. Specialized Connective Tissues

38

Name the subgroups of Connective Tissue Proper

  1. loose connective tissue
  2. dense connective tissue

39

What are the different types of loose connective tissue?

  1. Areolar
  2. Adipose
  3. Reticular

40

What are the different types of dense connective tissue?

  1. dense regular
  2. dense irregular
  3. elastic

41

Name the different types of Specialized Connective Tissue

  1. cartilage
  2. bone
  3. blood

42

What are the general characteristics of connective tissue?

  • most abundant tissue type
  • cells farther apart; matrix between cells
  • ECM consists of protein fibers and ground substance
  • most abundant cell in connective tissue proper is the fibroblast

43

What are the structure and function of macrophages?

motile cells that are sometimes attached to fibers

clears foreign particles from tissues by way of phagocytosis

44

True or False:

Connective tissue does not help to repair tissue damage or protect against infections?

False

45

What are the structure and function of fibroblasts?

widely distributed- large/star-shaped cells

secrete proteins that become fibers

46

What are the structure and function of mast cells?

large, fixed cells-near blood vessels

release substances to prevent blood clotting ( heparin)

release substances to promote inflammatory response ( histamine)

47

What are the major types of cells in connective tissue?

  • fibroblasts
  • macrophages
  • mast cells

48

Fibroblasts produce what kind of fibers?

  1. Collagen fibers- found in ligaments & tendons
  2. Elastic fibers- found in vocal cords & respiratory air passages
  3. Reticular fibers- found in spleen & liver

49

Areolar CT can be found where in the body?

  • in the dermis
  • in the lamina propria of the GI and Respiratory tracts
  • surrounding glands and their ducts
  • in the mucous membrane of Urinary and Reproductive tracts

50

Adipose CT are found where in the body?

  • subcutaneous layer of Skin
  • behind Eyeballs
  • around Kidneys & Heart
  • spaces between muscles

51

True or False:

Adipose is a dense connective tissue?

False

52

True or False:

Adipocytes store fat for energy?

True

53

Reticular CT are found where in the body?

  • around Liver & Kidney
  • around Spleen & Lymph Nodes
  • in the Bone Marrow

54

What are reticular cells?

Special fibroblasts that synthesize reticular fibers

55

What kind of CT makes up tendons, ligaments and aponeurosis?

Dense Regular Connective Tissue

56

True or False:

Dense Regular CT have a poor blood supply and promotes slow healing?

True

57

True or False:

Dense Irregular CT cannot withstand tension exerted from different directions in the body?

False

-dense irregular CT are thick, interwoven collagenous fibers that can withstand tension exerted from different directions.

58

Where can dense irregular CT be found?

  • dermis of skin
  • around skeletal muscles

59

True or False:

One subtype of Connective Tissue Proper is cartilage?

False

Cartilage is a Specialized CT

60

True or False:

Elastic CT can only be found in respiratory passageways?

False

Elastic CT can be found in walls of hallow organs, such as large arteries, airways, and parts of heart

61

What are lacunae in the cells?

Lacunae are small spaces or chambers in bone and cartilage cells.

62

What are the 3 types of Cartilage?

  • Hyaline
  • Elastic
  • Fibrocartilage

63

Which is the most common type of cartilage in the body?

Hyaline cartilage is the most common type of cartilage in the body, which can be found on the ends of bone joints, the ribs and respiratory passages.

64

Which specialized connective tissue have Chondrocytes in lacunae, contains a collagen matrix in gel-like ground substance, is rigid and lacks blood supply?

Cartilage

65

True or False:

Elastic cartilage can be found in the internal ears, epiglottis, and auditory tubes?

False

Elastic cartilage can be found in the external ears, epiglottis, and auditory tubes.

66

True or False:

Fibrocartilage acts as a "shock absorber" in the intervertebral discs, pads of knees, and pelvic girdle?

True

67

What are the characteristics of Bone?

  • most rigid CT
  • solid matrix, composed of mineral salts (Ca) & collagen
  • supports & protects vital structures (forms skeleton)
  • attachment sites for muscle

68

What are the main cells in Bone?

Osteocytes

69

Why does injured bone heal more quickly than injured cartilage?

Cartilage lacks a direct blood supply; Bone has a better blood supply than cartilage and is well nourished, so it heals more quickly.

70

Osteons are cemented together to form which type of bone?

Compact Bone

71

What are the major components of Blood?

  1. Plasma
  2. Red Blood Cells
  3. White Blood Cells
  4. Platelets

72

How do RBC's function?

Transport gases

73

How do WBC's function?

Defend against infections

74

Cells are suspended in a fluid matrix called?

Plasma

75

Platelets aide in what?

blood clotting

76

A deficiency of the protein fibrillin which leads to long limbs, spindly fingers, sunken chest, weak aorta, and dislocation of the eye are symptoms of what disorder?

Marfan Syndrome

77

Where can Serous membranes be found and how does it function?

  • line body cavities that do not open to outside of body
  • inner linings of the thorax and abdomen; covers organs
  • secretes serous fluid for lubrication, reducing friction

78

Where can Mucous membranes be found and how does it function?

  • line cavities and tubes that open to the outside of body
  • linings of digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts
  • Goblet cells secrete mucus

79

Where can Cutaneous membranes be found and how does it function?

  • commonly called Skin
  • covers body surface
  • protection; part of Integumentary system

80

Where can Synovial membranes be found and how does it function?

  • forms bordering line of synovial joints
  • composed of entirely CT
  • lines freely moveable joints, shoulder, elbow, & knee
  • provide a smooth surface and secrete a lubricating fluid

81

Name the 3 types of Muscle Tissue?

  1. Skeletal Muscle Tissue
  2. Cardiac Muscle Tissue
  3. Smooth Muscle Tissue

82

Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle tissue?

  • attached to bones
  • Striated
  • Voluntary
  • multinucleated
  • long cylindrical cells
  • stimulated by nerve cells

83

Characteristics of Cardiac Muscle tissue?

  • only in wall of heart
  • branching cells
  • Involuntary
  • Striated
  • Intercalated discs

84

Characteristics of Smooth Muscle tissue?

  • Non-Striated
  • Involuntary
  • spindle-shaped cells
  • walls of hallow organs
  • walls of blood vessels

85

Where can Nervous Tissue be found in the body?

  • Brain
  • Spinal Cord
  • Peripheral Nerves

86

What are the main cells of Nervous tissue?

Neurons

specialized for communication through nerve impulses (sensory reception, motor control)

Neurons coordinate, integrate, and regulate body functions.

87

Describe cells of Nervous tissue?

  1. Cell body (soma)- nucleus, cytoplasm, organelles, neurofilaments, chromatophilic substance (Nissl bodies).
  2. Dendrites- branched receptive surfaces, a neuron; may have many
  3. Axon- transmits impulses and releases neurotransmitters to another neuron or effector; a neuron may only have 1 axon.

88

True or False:

Neuroglia are specialized cells that support the nervous system by nourishing, protecting and insulating the neurons?

True