Overview of the skeleton - lab

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Marieb lab book , bold words only
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1

Skeleton

Constructed of two of the most supportive tissues found in the human body: cartilage and bone.

2

In embryos, the skeleton is composed mainly of______ cartilage

Hyaline

3

Site for blood cell formation

Red marrow cavities

4

Axial skeleton

Bones that form the body's longitudinal axis

5

Appendicular skeleton

Bones of the girdles and limbs

6

Bone markings

Bumps, holes, and ridges

7

Tuberosity

Large rounded projection; may be roughened

8

Crest

Narrow ridge of bone, usually prominent

9

Trochanter

Very large, blunt, irregularly shaped process. Only on the femur.

10

Line

Narrow ridge of bone; less prominent than a crest

11

Tubercle

Small rounded projection or process

12

Epicondyle

Raised area on or above a condyle

13

Spine

Sharp, slender, often pointed projection

14

Ramus

Arm-like bar of bone

15

Head

Boney expansion carried on a narrow neck

16

Facet

Smooth, nearly flat articular surface

17

Condyle

Rounded articular projection

18

Meatus

Canal-like passageway

19

Sinus

Cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane

20

Fossa

Shallow, basin-like depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface

21

Groove

Slit-like furrow

22

Fissure

Narrow slit-like opening

23

Foramen

Round or oval opening through a bone

24

Compact bone

Dense and looks smooth and homogenous. Riddled with passageways carrying blood vessels and nerves that provide the living bone cells with needed substances and a way to eliminate wastes.

25

Spongy bone

Composed of small trabeculae of bone and lots of open space

26

Long bones

Longer than they are wide, made mostly of compact bone. Example :the femur

27

Short bones

Typically cube shaped, contain more spongy bone than compact bone. Example: the tarsals and carpels

28

Flat bones

Generally thin, with a layer of spongy bone sandwiched between two wafer like layers of compact bone. Example: Bones of the skull

29

Diaphysis

The shaft

30

Periosteum

Fibrous membrane that covers the bone surface. Many fibers of the _____ (Sharpey's fibers) penetrate into the bone.

31

Epiphysis

The end of the long bone, composed of a thin layer of compact bone enclosing spongy bone

32

Articular Cartlidge

Covers the epithelial surface in place of the curiosity periosteum . Composed of glassy hyaline cartilage, provides a smooth surface to prevent friction at joint surfaces.

33

Epiphyseal plate

A thin layer of hyaline cartilage that provides for growth in bone length. When bone growth ends, these areas are replaced with bone and called epiphyseal lines.

34

Yellow marrow

Adipose tissue inside the medullary cavity. In babies the red marrow fills this central cavity.

35

Endosteum

Lines the medullary cavity

36

Trabeculae

Composes spongy bone

37

Central Haversian canal

Runs parallel to the long axis of the bone and carries blood vessels and nerves through the bony matrix

38

Lacunae

Chambers where osteocytes are found in living bone

39

Lamellae

Arranged in concentric circles around the central canal

40

Osteon or Haversian system

A central canal and all the lamellae surrounding it

41

Canaliculi

Tiny canals running from a central canal to the lacunae of the first lamella and then from lamella to lamella.

42

Volkman's canals

These canals run into the compact bone and marrow cavities from the periosteum, at right angles to the bone shaft.