A & P Lab Weeks 4-7

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1

Axial Skeleton

pertains to the bones of the body (Head & Thorax)

2

Appendicular skeleton

refers to the extremities (arms and legs)

3

Ligaments

attach bone to bone

4

Tendons

attach bone to muscle

5

Major classification of bones

long
short
flat
irregular
sesamoid
sutural

6

Sutural Bones (wormian bones)

found between the skull bones

7

Epiphysis

the ends of the bone (head)

8

Bone found in epiphysis

a thin layer of compact bone surrounding a larger network of spongy bone

9

Diaphysis

the long, hollow shaft of the bone

10

Bone found in the diaphysis

compact bone

11

Metaphysis

the flared region where the epiphysis and diaphysis meet

12

Medullary Cavity

cavity within the diaphysis

13

Substance found in the medullary cavity

yellow marrow (adipose tissue)

14

Periosteum

dense fibrous membrane covering the surface of a bone that contains fibers

15

Function of periosteum

allow blood vessels and nerves to penetrate into the bone
provides vascularity and nutrients
serves as an area of attachment

16

Endosteum

lining of the medullary cavity

17

Contained in the endosteum

osteoblasts and osteoclasts

18

Epiphyseal plate

between the epiphysis and the diaphysis are the metaphyses (growing portion of the bone)

19

Epiphyseal Line

where cartilage from the epiphyseal plate has calcified

20

Compact bone

dense and relatively solid forming the shaft of the diaphysis

21

Spongy Bone

forms an open network of trabeculae in the inner portion of the diaphysis and most of the epiphysis

22

Contained in the spongy bone

red marrow

23

Osteons

pattern of concentric rings that make up compact bone

24

Central (Haversian) canal

run vertically through the bone and contain blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves

25

Volkmann's canals

run horizontally through the bone

26

Lamellae

rings that encircle the central canal

27

lacunae

small spaces located within and between the lamellae

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canaliculi

small channels that interconnect lacunae

29

Osteocyte

(mature) bone cell

30

Osteoblasts

responsible for the production of new bone

31

The production of new bone

osteogenesis

32

Osteoclasts

break down and remove bone

33

Process

a projection or bump

34

Ramus

angle of a bone

35

trochanter

very large, rough, rounded projection
present only in the femur

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tuberosity

large (smaller than trochanter) rough, rounded projection

37

tubercle

small, rough, rounded projection

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crest

prominent projection or ridge

39

line

narrow, low ridge

40

spine

pointed process

41

head

expanded, round surface at the end of a bone

42

condyle

large, convex projection that usually contacts another bone

43

trochlea

grooved surface shaped like a pulley

44

facet

small, smooth, flat surface

45

fossa

shallow depression or concavity

46

foramen

natural opening on a bone surface for nerves and/or blood vessels

47

fissure

deep cleft between adjacent parts of bone

48

meatus

canal

49

sinus or antrum

hollow space within the bone

50

Sutures

immovable joints

51

zygomatic arch

zygomatic process of the temporal bone and temporal process of zygomatic bone

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mastoid process
(of temporal bone)

bony prominence behind ear

53

styloid process
(of temporal bone)

pillar

54

Sella Turcica
(of sphenoid bone)

turkish saddle
pituitary gland occupies this fossa

55

Perpendicular plate of ethmoid

together with volmer makes up bony nasal septum

56

cribriform plate of ethmoid

forms roof of nasal cavity

57

crista galli of ethmoid bone

(cock's comb) falx cerebri (membrane) in brain attaches here

58

foramen magnum

large opening in the occipital through which the spinal cord passes to brain

59

external occipital protuberance

of the occipital bone

60

Occipital condyle

of the occipital bone

61

fontanel

fibrous membranes which eventually form sutures of cranium

62

purpose of fontanels

allow for fetal skull to be compressed during birth as well as growth of brain during early stages of life

63

hyoid bone

horse shore shaped bone, located in the throat above larynx

64

function of hyoid bone

point of attachment for many tongue and neck muscles

65

types of synovial joints

gliding, hinge, pivot, saddle, ball & socket, condyloid

66

example of gliding joint

carpal & tarsal

67

example of hinge joint

elbow & knee

68

example of pivot joint

atlas/axis

69

example of saddle joint

carpometacarpal joint of thumb

70

example of ball and socket joint

shoulder & hip

71

example of condyloid

(modified ball & socket) metacarpaophalangeal (knuckle)

72

flexion

bending motion in which the angle between two bones is decreased

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extension

straightening motion in which the angle between two bones increases (often restores body to correct anatomical position)

74

hyperextension

extension beyond the correct anatomical position

75

dorsiflextion

flexion of the ankle joint, as when you dig your heel

76

plantar flexion

extension of the ankle and elevation of the heel, as when you stand on your tip toe

77

abduction

movement of a limb away from the midline of the body, movement of the toes or fingers away from the longitudinal axis of the hand or foot (spreading the fingers)

78

adduction

movement of a limb towards the midline of the body, movement of the fingers or toes towards the midline of the hand or foot (brining the fingers back together)

79

circumduction

movement in which distal end of the bone moves in a circular motion while the proximal end remains stable; as when you move your arm in a large circle

80

rotation

movement of a bone around its longitudinal axis, as when you shake your head "no"

81

pronation

a pivoting motion of the forearm that turns the palm downwards or backward, crossing the radius diagonally over the ulna

82

supination

a pivoting movement of the forearm that turns the palm forward or upward , making the radius parallel with the ulna

83

opposition

angular movement in which the thumb is brought to touch a finger of the extended finger, as when you touch your thumb to your little finger of the same hand

84

reposition

movement that returns thumb to anatomical position, opposite of opposition

85

inversion

movement of the sole of the foot inward (medially)

86

eversion

movement of the sole of the foot outward (laterally)

87

protraction

moving a part of the body forward on a horizontal plane, forward movement

88

retraction

moving a part of the body backward on a horizontal plane, backward movement

89

elevation

movement of a part of the body upward, such as when you shrug your shoulders

90

depression

movement of a part of the body downward, such as when you open your mouth

91

Simple fracture

the bone is broken but does not break through the skin

92

compound fracture

the bone is broken and breaks through the skin

93

complete fracture

the bone breaks completely into two pieces

94

incomplete fracture

the bone does not break completely into two or more pieces

95

skeletal muscle

associated with the skeleton, attached to bone by tendons

96

cardiac muscle

found in the walls of the heart

97

smooth muscle

found in the walls of internal organs

98

Muscles that have striations

cardiac and skeletal muscles

99

Striations result from...

the product of the highly organized arrangement of actin and myosin filaments within each fiber

100

Skeletal muscle arrangement flow chart

actin and myosin => myofilaments => sarcomere => myofibrils => myofibers => muscle

101

tendon

tough cords of connective tissue
attach bone to muscle

102

aponeuroses

flat sheets of connective tissue

103

ligaments

attach bone to bone

104

origin

the point of attachment of a muscle that shows relatively little movement during contraction

105

insertion

the point of attachment of a muscle that shows most of the movement during contraction

106

action

involves the result of movement of a portion of the skeleton

107

innervation

refers to the identity of the nerve that controls a specific muscle

108

importance and function of intervertebral disks

to cushion the vertebrae and absorb shocks

109

herniated disk

the nucleus pulpous herniates through the annulus portion and typically compresses adjacent nerves

110

body

rounded central portion of the vertebrae, which faces anteriorly in the human vertebral column

111

vertebral arch

composed of pedicles, laminae, and a spinous process, it represents the junction of all posterior extensions from the vertebral body

112

vertebral foramen

opening enclosed by the body and the vertebral arch, a conduit for the spinal cord

113

transverse process

two lateral projections from the vertebral arch

114

spinous process

single medial and posterior projection from the vertebral arch

115

superior and inferior articular processes

paired projections lateral to the vertebral foramen that enable the articulation with adjacent vertebrae

116

intervertebral foramina

the left and right pedicles have notches on their inferior and superior surfaces that create openings for spinal nerves to leave the spinal cord between adjacent vertebrae

117

How many cervical vertebrae are there?

7

118

How many thoracic vertebrae are there?

12

119

How many lumbar vertebrae are there?

5

120

Sacrum is composed of

5 fused vertebrae

121

coccyx is composed of

3-5 fused vertebrae

122

Cervical vertebrae have..

transverse foramen

123

Atlas

c1

124

axis

c2

125

atlas is named for...

the greek god atlas who holds the heavens on his shoulders

126

femur is...

largest bone in the human body

127

menisci

cartilage between the femur and tibia

128

Number of true ribs

7

129

number of false ribs

5

130

number of floating ribs

2

131

true ribs

attached directly by costal cartilage

132

false ribs

attached indirectly

133

floating ribs

not attached at all

134

what articulates at the deltoid tuberosity?

the large, fleshy shoulder muscle (DELTOID)

135

what articulates at the trochlea?

the ulna

136

what articulates that the capitulum?

the radius of the forearm

137

what articulates at the styloid process?

the ligaments of the wrist

138

How many bones are in the phalanges?

14

139

how many bones are in the metacarpals?

5

140

how many bones are in the carpals?

8