blood ch 17 Flashcards

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Blood can prevent blood loss by forming clots
when a blood vessel is damaged. Blood can prevent infection because it contains antimicrobial proteins and white blood cells.

3. Plasma proteins perform many key functions in the blood (see Table 17.1). One key function is to maintain the correct osmotic pressure in the blood. Without the osmotic pressure of plasma proteins "pulling" water molecules into the bloodstream, more water enters the tissues. Your patient may have tissue swelling (called edema) due to water leaking out of the blood. In addition, some of the plasma proteins synthesized by the liver (e.g., fibrinogen) are clotting proteins, so your patient may bleed more readily in response to only minor injuries. While you might expect to see problems due to the loss of the carrier function of many plasma proteins, this
doesn't generally lead to easily observable signs and symptoms.

4. Each hemoglobin molecule can transport four O. The heme portion of the hemoglobin binds the O2.

5. The kidneys' synthesis of erythropoietin is compromised in advanced kidney disease, so RBC production decreases, causing anemia.

6. The cells are (a) lymphocyte, (b) eosinophil, (c) monocyte, (d) basophil, (e) neutrophil. (1) Neutrophils (e) are and monocytes (c) become important phagocytes. (2) Eosinophils
(b), basophils (d), and neutrophils (e) are granulocytes. (3) Lymphocytes (a) are abundant in lymph nodes and in the spleen. (4)The granule contents of basophils (d) are similar to those of mast cells.

7. Amos's red bone marrow is spewing out many abnormal white blood cells, which are crowding out the production of normal bone marrow elements. The lack of normal white blood cells allows the
infections, the low number of platelets fails to stop bleeding, and the lack of erythrocytes is anemia. 8. Microglial cells can become phagocytes in the brain.

9. A megakaryocyte is a cell that produces platelets. Its name means "big nucleus cell."

10. The three steps of hemostasis are vascular spasm, platelet plug formation, and coagulation.

11. Prothrombin activator catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to
thrombin. Thrombin catalyzes the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. Prothrombin is an inactive precursor, whereas thrombin acts as an enzyme. Fibrinogen is water soluble, whereas fibrin is not. Most factors are inactive in blood before activation
and become enzymes upon activation. (There are exceptions, such as fibrinogen
and calcium.)

12. Thrombocytopenia (platelet deficiency) results in failure to
plug the countless small tears in blood vessels, and so manifests as small purplespots (petechia). Hemophilia A results from the absence of clotting factor VIlI.

13. Nigel has anti-B antibodies in his blood and type A agglutinogens (antigens)
on his RBCs. He can donate
Antigen B
blood to an AB recipient, but
he should not receive blood
from an AB donor because his
anti-B antibodies will cause a
Red blood cell
transfusion reaction.

15. If Emily has a bacterial meningitis, a differential WBC count would likely reveal an increase in neutrophils
because neutrophils are a major body defense against bacteria.



2. The hematocrit is the percentage
of blood that is occupied by erythrocytes. It is normally about 45%.