Medical Terminology Ch. 6

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1

Hematopoiesis

production of blood

2

Musculoskeletal

pertaining to the muscles and the skeleton

3

Orthopedics

the branch of medicine involved in the prevention and correction of deformities or diseases in the musculoskeletal system (especially bones, muscles, joints, ligaments, and tendons)

4

Orthopedist

orignially aligned children's bones and corrected deformities

5

Rachiodynia & rachialgia

painful spine

6

Intervertebral

in-between two adjoining vertebrae

7

Cerebrospinal fluid

spinal fluid ; the clear, colorless liquid that circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord

8

Lumbago

a dull, aching pain in the lower back

9

Thoracolumbar region

refers to the inferior thoracic vertebrae and the superior lumbar vertebrae as a group

10

Sacral vertebrae

vertebrae that are present at birth, but in the adult, they are fused to form one bone

11

Coccygeal bones

"pertaining to the tailbone" coccyx is a result of the fusion of these bones

12

Costal

ribs

13

Intercostal

between the ribs

14

Subcostal

under a rib or ribs

15

Sternocostal

pertains to the sternum and the ribs

16

Vertebrocostal

pertains to a rib and a vertebrae

17

Costovertebral

pertaining to a rib and a vertebrae

18

Substernal

a location or position below the sternum

19

Sternoclavicular

pertains to the clavicle and the sternum

20

Illiopubic

refers to the ilium and the pubis

21

Humeroscapular

refers to the humerus and the scapula

22

Humeroulnar

refers to both the ulna and the humerus

23

Carpectomy

excision of one or more bones of the wrist

24

Carpal Tunnel Syndrom

a complex of symptoms resulting from pressure on the median nerve in the carpal tunnel of the wrist. (causes pain, burning, or tingling in the fingers or hand)

25

Metacarpals

lie next to the carpals

26

Carpophalangeal

refers to the wrist and bones of the fingers

27

Patelofemoral

kneecap and the femur

28

Tibialgia

pain of the tibia

29

Tarsus

ankle

30

Osteoid

resembling bone

31

Calcification

process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by deposits of calcium

32

Decalcification

loss of calcium from bone or teeth

33

Myelitis

inflammation of either the spinal cord or the bone marrow

34

Osteomyelitis

inflammation of the bone often involving the bone marrow

35

Myelofibrosis

replacement of bone marrow by fibrous tissue

36

Myleoencephalitis

inflammation of the brain and spinal cord

37

Chondral

pertaining to cartilage

38

Cartilage

dense connective tissue that is elastic but strong and can withstand considerable pressure or tension

39

Subchondral

beneath the cartilage

40

Vertebrochondral

pertaining to a vertebrae and its adjacent cartilage

41

Costochondral

pertaining to a rib and its cartilage

42

Articulation

place of union between two or more bones

43

Synovial joint

freely movable and contains synovial fluid

44

Extension

straightens a limb

45

Flexion

bends a limb

46

Rotation

movement of a bone around its own axis

47

Circumduction

circular movement of a limb at the far end

48

Ligaments

strong bands of fibrous tissue that connect bones and cartilage and serve to support and strengthen joints

49

Fascia

fibrous membrane that covers, supports, and separates muscles

50

Tendons

bands or strong fibrous tissue that attach muscles to the bones

51

Myolysis

destruction of muscle

52

Myopathy

disease of muscle

53

Musculofascial

refers to or consists of muscle and fascia

54

Myalgia

muscle pain

55

Fibromyalgia

widespread nonarticular pain of the torso, extremities, and face

56

Myofibrosis

tissue is replaces by fibrous tissue

57

Myasthenia gravis

fatigue and muscle weakness resulting in a defect in the conduction of nerve impulses

58

Herniated disk

if the disks between the vertebrae become diseased, they sometimes rupture, resulting in this, which can press on the spinal cord or on a spinal nerve and cause pain

59

Paraplegia

paralysis of the lower portion of the body and both legs

60

Quadriplegia & tetraplegia

paralysis of the arms and legs

61

Paresis

slight or incomplete paralysis

62

Paraparesis

slight or partial paralysis

63

Quadriparesis & Tetraparesis

slight or partial paralysis that effects all four extremities

64

Dislocation

the displacement of a bone from a joint

65

Fracture

the breaking of a bone, usually from a sudden injury

66

Sprain

injury to a joint that causes pain and disability

67

Strain

excessive use of a part of the body to the extent that it is injured or trauma to a muscle caused by violent contraction or excessive forcible stretch

68

Myocele

a condition in which the muscle protrudes through its fascial covering

69

Tendinitis

inflammation of a tendon

70

Myoasthenia

muscular weakness

71

Cellulitis

an acute, spreading inflammation of the deep subcutaneous tissues

72

Myocellulitis

cellulitis of involving the muscle

73

Osteitis

inflammation of a bone and possibly caused by infection, degeneration, or trauma

74

Osteochondritis

inflammation of bone and cartilage and tends to attack bone forming (ossification) centers of the skeleton

75

Sarcomas

cancers that arise from connective tissue, such as muscle or bone

76

Chondrosarcoma

malignant tumor composed of masses of cartilage

77

Fibrosarcoma

malignant tumor containing masses of fibrous tissue

78

Leukemias

chronic or acute diseases of blood-forming tissues characterized by unstrained growth of leukocytes and their precursors

79

Multiple myeloma

a disease characterized by the presence of many tumor masses in the bone and bone marrow

80

Osteoporosis

a metabolic disease in which reduced bone mass leads to subsequent fractures, most often affecting postmenopausal women, sedentary individuals, and patients receiving long-term steroid therapy

81

Osteomalacia

a reversible skeletal disorder characterized by a defect in the mineralization of the bone

82

Spondylomalacia

softening of the vertebrae

83

Osteitis deformans (Paget disease)

a skeletal disease of elderly persons characterized by chronic bone inflammation. results in thickening and softening of bones and bowing of the long bones

84

Spina bifida

a congenital abnormality characterized by defective closure of the bones of the spine

85

Scoliosis

lateral curvature of the spine

86

Kyphosis

exaggerated curvature of the spine from front to back

87

Muscular dystrophy

a group of inherited diseases characterized by weakness, wasting of muscle without involvement of the nervous system, and progressive disability and loss of strength

88

Crainocele

hernial protrusion of the brain through a defect in the skull

89

Tarsoptosis

(flatfoot) inherited condition characterized by the flattening out of the arch of the foot

90

Arthritis

any inflammatory condition of the joints characterized by pain, heat, swelling, redness, and limitation of movement

91

Osteoarthritis

AKA degenerative joint disease
a form of arthritis in which one or many joints undergo degenerative changes, particularly loss of articular cartilage

92

Rheumatoid arthritis

chronic, systematic disease that often results in joint deformities, particularly in the hands and the feet

93

Rheumatism

general stiffness of muscles and by pain in joints and associated structures

94

Spondylarthritis

inflammation of a vertebrae

95

Rheumatoid spondylitis

inflammation of cartilage between the vertebrae and can eventually cause neighboring vertebrae to fuse

96

Ankylosed spine

the whole spine becomes stiffened

97

Polyarthritis

inflammation in more than one joint

98

Arthralgia & arthrodynia

painful joint

99

Bursitis

inflammation of the bursa

100

Ankylosis

abnormal condition in which a joint is immobile and stiff

101

Lupus erythematosus

an autoimmune disease that involves connective tissue

102

Gout

painful metabolic disease that is a form of acute arthritis

103

Hyperuricemia

excessive formation of urates in and around the joint

104

Arthroscopy

direct visualization of the interior of a joint using arthroscope

105

Arthroscope

a specialized fiberoptic endoscope

106

Arthrotomy

incision of a joint

107

Arthropathy

any disease of a joint

108

Reduction

pulling the broken fragments into alignment

109

Antiosteoporotic

used to treat osteoporosis

110

Vetebroplasty

a procedure where a cement-like substance is injected into the body of a factored vertebrae to stabilize and strengthen it and immediately remove pain

111

Ostectomy

excision of a bone (or a portion of it)

112

Costectomy

excision of a rib

113

Craniectomy

excision of a segment of the skull

114

Craniotomy

incision through the skull

115

Cranioplasty

plastic surgery to repair the skull

116

Chondrectomy

excision of cartilage

117

Tendoplasty

surgical repair of a tendon

118

Myoplasty

surgical repair of the muscle

119

Tenomyoplasty

surgical repair of the muscle and tendon

120

Laminectomy

removal of the bony posterior arch of a vertebrae to permit surgical access to the disk so that the herniated material may be removed

121

Diskectomy

complete excision of an intervertebral disk

122

Spinal puncture (spinal tap)

puncture of the spinal cavity with a needle

123

Bunionectomy

excision of a bunion

124

Antiinflammitories

used to reduce inflammation and pain

125

Antiarthritics

various forms of therapy that relieve the symptoms of arthritis

126

Arthrocentesis

extracting excessive fluid that can accumulate in a synovial joint after an injury with a needle

127

Arthroplasty

surgicial reconstruction or replacement of a joint

128

Myelosuppression

bone marrow transplants are used to stimulate the production of normal blood