Family Therapy: An Overview: Marriage & Family Final Flashcards


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Family Therapy: An Overview
Chapters 6, 7, 12-14
1-199 are from the test bank. 200-358 are based on my textbook outline.
updated 8 months ago by shellykess
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1

Family therapists have sought licensing because:

a. they want legal recognition.
b. the public equates licensing with professionalism.
c. reimbursements from health plans require licensing.
d. All of the answers are correct.

d. All of the answers are correct.

2

A _______________ law regulates who may practice in a state.
a. credentialing
b. certification
c. licensing
d. accreditation

c. licensing

3

A certification law:
a. certifies who may use a title such as family therapist.
b. certifies who may practice family therapy.
c. is stronger than a licensing law.
d. is equivalent to a licensing law.

a. certifies who may use a title such as family therapist.

4

Mandating that certain courses be taken before license renewal is called:
a. peer review.
b. continuing education.
c. accreditation.
d. None of the answers are correct.

b. continuing education.

5

Marital/family therapy is regulated in how many states?
a. All 50
b. Between 40 and 50
c. Less than 20
d. In only 5 states at this time

a. All 50

6

Peer review refers to:
a. class discussion of cases.
b. review courses for state licensing exams.
c. independent evaluation by a colleague of one’s procedures.
d. None of the answers are correct.

c. independent evaluation by a colleague of one’s procedures.

7

Peer consultation groups typically involve:
a. independent private practice.
b. continuing education courses.
c. co-therapy.
d. prepaid insurance.

a. private practice

8

Managed care programs typically involve:
a. independent private practice.
b. continuing education courses.
c. co-therapy.
d. prepaid insurance.

d. prepaid insurance.

9

Managed care plans require:
a. fee for service providers.
b. preauthorization before therapy.
c. psychiatric supervision.
d. All of the answers are correct.

b. preauthorization before therapy.

10

In a managed care setup, therapists are usually referred to as:
a. psychologists.
b. counselors.
c. providers.
d. None of the answers are correct.

c. providers.

11

In a typical managed care arrangement:
a. therapists must submit written treatment plans.
b. fees are set by the therapist.
c. referrals come from all areas.
d. there are unlimited sessions.

a. therapists must submit written treatment plans.

12

The emergence of managed care has:
a. decreased the freedom of solo practitioners.
b. decreased the need for time-limited therapeutic procedures.
c. increased the freedom of solo practitioners.
d. encouraged long-term treatment.

a. decreased the freedom of solo practitioners.

13

Which of the following is not a likely ground for bringing a suit for malpractice?
a. Ineptitude
b. Carelessness
c. Negligence
d. Scheduling error

d. Scheduling error

14

Which of the following is a true statement?
a. Practitioners are expected to make correct judgments.
b. Practitioners are expected to predict the future behavior of their clients.
c. Practitioners are expected to be informed and act in good faith.
d. Practitioners are expected to deliver within an 85% range of symptom remediation.

c. Practitioners are expected to be informed and act in good faith.

15

The most common grounds for a malpractice suit is:
a. sexual involvement with a client.
b. business arrangements with a client.
c. divorce following therapy.
d. unsuccessful treatment.

a. sexual involvement with a client.

16

Clients need to be told of the possible risks before commencing treatment. This is an example of:
a. peer review.
b. malpractice.
c. privileged communication.
d. informed consent.

d. informed consent.

17

Which of the following is not an element in a malpractice suit?
a. A breached standard of care
b. Therapist intentions
c. Plaintiff harm
d. Negligence

b. Therapist intentions

18

One way to avoid successful malpractice suits is to:
a. document treatment plans.
b. consult with colleagues.
c. do not go outside your area of competence.
d. All of the answers are correct.

d. All of the answers are correct.

19

An ethical code violation such as inappropriate advertising of one’s services is likely to be met with a _______________ level sanction by the APA.
a. expulsion
b. educative
c. reprimand
d. censure

b. educative

20

Defrauding insurance carriers is likely to be met with a _______________ level sanction by the APA.
a. expulsion
b. educative
c. reprimand
d. censure

a. expulsion

21

Continuing or dramatic misconduct by a member of APA that results in a hazard to clients or the public could lead to:
a. an educative warning.
b. an educative advisory.
c. expulsion.
d. a mandated CE course.

c. expulsion.

22

The AAMFT Code of Ethics covers all but one of the following. Which one is not covered?
a. Confidentiality
b. Advertising
c. Financial arrangements
d. Training

d. Training

23

Which of the following is not an example of an ethical issue in family therapy is:
a. to whom the therapist owes primary loyalty.
b. how to deal with confidentiality.
c. when and how to diagnostically label family members.
d. a diagnostic disagreement with a supervisor.

d. a diagnostic disagreement with a supervisor.

24

“Family therapy may be hazardous to your health.” This statement points to the fact that:
a. symptoms may develop in the course of treatment.
b. what most benefits the family as a whole may not be best for each member.
c. stress may accompany participation.
d. smoking is rarely allowed during therapy sessions.

b. what most benefits the family as a whole may not be best for each member.

25

In the case of detected child abuse, the therapist should:
a. deliberate on whether to report it, depending on circumstances.
b. wait until therapy is over before reporting it.
c. report it immediately to the police or child welfare agency.
d. work out the problem with the family without reporting it to the proper authorities.

c. report it immediately to the police or child welfare agency.

26

In the case of parental abuse of a child described in the text, the therapist’s priority is:
a. the child’s welfare.
b. maintaining confidentiality.
c. exposing family secrets.
d. questioning the possibility of incest between the father and daughter.

a. the child’s welfare.

27

Protecting a client from unauthorized disclosures by the therapist without prior consent is called:
a. information disclosure.
b. communication privileges.
c. right to silence.
d. confidentiality.

d. confidentiality.

28

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) is intended to:
a. support HMOs over fee-for-services delivery.
b. protect the security of health information transmitted by practitioners.
c. discourage private practice.
d. increase the number of practitioners in rural areas.

b. protect the security of health information transmitted by practitioners.

29

A legal exception to confidentiality maintenance occurs in the case of:
a. clients telling therapists secrets.
b. husbands and wives divulging secrets in individual sessions.
c. divulging information to third-party payors.
d. client admits to a fantasy of killing someone.

c. divulging information to third-party payors.

30

A therapist who determines that there is imminent danger to someone the client vows to harm should:
a. warn the potential victim.
b. maintain client confidence.
c. wait to see if the threat is carried out.
d. remain neutral.

a. warn the potential victim.

31

Which of the following is not relevant with respect to informed consent before commencing therapy:
a. describing procedures.
b. describing the limits of confidentiality.
c. risks of possible negative outcomes.
d. describing the techniques the therapist plans to use in treatment.

d. describing the techniques the therapist plans to use in treatment.

32

Who “owns” the right to waive privilege regarding information obtained during a conjoint session?
a. The therapist
b. The husband or the wife
c. The couple
d. The courts

c. The couple

33

Supervisees should inform clients that:
a. they are being supervised.
b. they can not guarantee complete confidentiality.
c. the session may be recorded.
d. All of the answers are correct.

d. All of the answers are correct.

34

Which of the following is true?
a. E-therapy is illegal.
b. E-therapy has been shown to be more effective than onsite therapy.
c. To minimize possible liability exposure, therapists should disclose possible advantages and drawbacks to using the internet for therapy.
d. The courts have stipulated circumstances when e-therapy should not be used.

c. To minimize possible liability exposure, therapists should disclose possible advantages and drawbacks to using the internet for therapy.

35

Psychiatric consultants may be called upon for ________ evaluation or to hospitalize a client if the family therapist lacks hospital privileges or has not dealt with hospitalization in his or her training.
a. mental
b. marital
c. emotional
d. medical

d. medical

36

_____________________ A statutory process established by a government agency, usually a state or province, granting permission to persons, having met predetermined qualifications, to call themselves by a particular title, and prohibiting the use of that title without a certificate.

Certification

37

_____________________ An ethical standard aimed at protecting client privacy by ensuring that information received in a therapeutic relationship will not be disclosed without prior client consent.

Confidentiality

38

_____________________ The legal rights of patients or research subjects to be told of the purposes and risks involved before agreeing to participate.

Informed consent

39

_____________________ A legal concept addressing the failure to provide a level of professional skill or render a level of professional services ordinarily expected of professionals in a similar situation.

Malpractice

40

_____________________ A system in which third-party payers regulate and control the cost, quality, and terms of treatment of medical (including mental health) services.

Managed care

41

_____________________ A legal concept protecting a client’s disclosure to a therapist from being revealed in court; if the client waives the right, the therapist has no legal grounds for withholding the information.

Privileged communication

42

According to the textbook, the trend in family therapy today is toward:
a. psychoanalytic approaches.
b. eclecticism.
c. psychodynamic interpretations
d. evidence-based practice.

b. eclecticism.

43

Which integrative theory has emerged as dominant in the field of family therapy?
a. Psychoanalysis
b. Structural theory
c. Cognitive theory
d. No theory has emerged

d. No theory has emerged

44

A “good” theory should be:
a. verifiable.
b. parsimonious.
c. empirically valid.
d. All of the answers are correct.

d. All of the answers are correct.

45

An empirically valid theory:
a. confirms predictions.
b. requires experimental proof.
c. is subject to narrative analysis.
d. always contradicts clinical.

a. confirms predictions.

46

In the famous case of Little Hans, in which the child feared leaving his house for fear of being bitten by a horse:
a. Freud treated the whole family.
b. the treatment was carried out by the father, under Freud’s guidance.
c. Bowen worked with the boy and his father together.
d. Bowen never saw Hans, but worked with his parents.

b. the treatment was carried out by the father, under Freud’s guidance.

47

Sullivan emphasized all but one of the following as emerging from early mother-child relationships. Which one does
not belong?
a. Bad me
b. Not me
c. Real me
d. Good me

c. Real me

48

Two leading family therapists, Don Jackson and Murray Bowen, trained under American psychiatrist:
a. Gregory Bateson.
b. Nathan Ackerman.
c. Harry Stack Sullivan
d. Alfred Adler.

c. Harry Stack Sullivan

49

Which of the following models of family interaction is based largely on the psychoanalytic model?
a. Psychodynamic
b. Communication
c. Structural
d. Behavioral

a. Psychodynamic

50

Object relations therapy is a:

a. form of experiential family therapy
b. subset of behavior therapy developed by Bandura.
c. form of psychoanalysis therapy developed in Britain
d. major contribution of Nathan Ackerman.

Per the test bank key:

a. form of experiential family therapy

I don't think this is right, but I'm not sure which one is. It's definitely not (b), and I don't think it's (d), either.

51

According to Ackerman, family dysfunction reflects:
a. a failure of role complementarity.
b. learned maladaptive or problematic behavior.
c. a struggle for power.
d. None of the answers are correct.

a. a failure of role complementarity.

52

Ackerman used the term _______________ to describe several disabilities within a family which depend on each
other for expression or control.
a. family ego mass
b. triangulation
c. interlocking pathology
d. marital schism

c. interlocking pathology

53

In Ackerman’s approach:
a. both office interviews and home visits were employed.
b. office visits are common but home visits were avoided.
c. all therapeutic work with the family occurs in the home.
d. both office interviews and home visits are avoided by seeing families in a hospital setting.

a. both office interviews and home visits were employed.

54

By “tickling the defenses” Ackerman meant:
a. forcing members to expose their defensiveness.
b. catching members off guard and exposing their self-justifying rationalizations.
c. stripping members of all their defenses against anxiety.
d. stripping members of all their defenses against anxiety.

b. catching members off guard and exposing their self-justifying rationalizations.

55

Object relations theory evolved from the study of:
a. objective analyses of other persons.
b. object constancy.
c. early mother-infant relationships
d. father/mother/siblings bonding

c. early mother-infant relationships

56

Object relations theorists believe the infant’s need for ______________ influences the development of the self.
a. positive reinforcements
b. tenderness
c. attachment
d. nutrients

c. attachment

57

Which of the following would not be considered to be a part of the British Middle School:
a. Winnicott.
b. Fairbairn.
c. Balint.
d. Framo.

d. Framo.

58

Who is usually credited as the first object relations theorist?
a. Melanie Klein
b. Anna Freud
c. James Framo
d. Robin Skynner

a. Melanie Klein

59

The initial formulations regarding attachment theory were developed by:
a. Ainsworth.
b. Kohut.
c. Bowlby
d. Adler.

c. Bowlby

60

When a child internalizes the image of his mother into a good object and a bad object, he is engaging in:
a. projective identification
b. splitting.
c. identifying.
d. differentiating.

b. splitting.

61

Defending against anxiety by externalizing unwanted parts of oneself onto others is called:
a. introjection.
b. projection
c. rationalization.
d. projective identification

d. projective identification

62

The focus of object relations theory is:
a. monadic.
b. dyadic.
c. triadic.
d. None of the answers are correct.

b. dyadic.

63

Framo’s outlook on family functioning is based on which theory?
a. Intergenerational theory
b. Multigenerational theory
c. Object constancy theory
d. Object relations theory

d. Object relations theory

64

Framo may be considered to have built his theories on the earlier formulations of:
a. Fairbairn and Rogers.
b. Rogers and Dicks.
c. Fairbairn and Dicks
d. Ackerman and Bowen.

c. Fairbairn and Dicks

65

Framo utilizes all but one of the following in his family therapy:
a. individual sessions with each spouse separately.
b. couple groups.
c. the occasional use of a female co-therapist.
d. conjoint sessions

a. individual sessions with each spouse separately.

66

A spouse who projects undesired aspects of oneself onto a partner and then fights these characteristics in that mate
is engaging in:
a. projective identification
b. projective techniques
c. sculpting.
d. projective reintegration

a. projective identification

67

The family therapy approach that comes closest to classical psychoanalytic theory is that offered by:
a. Kohut.
b. Ackerman.
c. Scharff.
d. Framo.

d. Framo.

68

Object Relations Family Therapy emphasizes the basic human need for:
a. sexual gratification.
b. the release of aggression
c. experiences.
d. attachment.

d. attachment.

69

Therapist interpretations are an integral part of:
a. experiential family therapy.
b. contextual therapy.
c. object relations family therapy
d. None of the answers are correct.

c. object relations family therapy

70

A holding environment refers to:
a. a caring and nurturing environment that supports “good enough” development.
b. physical contact with a therapist
c. parental neglect.
d. a waiting area in a psychiatric hospital

a. a caring and nurturing environment that supports “good enough” development.

71

The Scharffs consider their treatment to be successful by the degree to which the family:
a. reports fewer hostile exchanges
b. masters developmental stresses
c. avoids coalitions
d. avoids alliances.

b. masters developmental stresses

72

In Kohut’s system, selfobjects refer to:
a. childhood play objects.
b. transitional objects in childhood.
c. self-sustaining psychic function that takes place within a self in its relationship to others that supports the self in its development.
d. the development of the self into an object.

c. self-sustaining psychic function that takes place within a self in its relationship to others that supports the self in its development.

73

Kohut viewed narcissism as:
a. a pathological condition of self-absorption.
b. a normal stage of development.
c. disappearing after adolescence.
d. concern for the welfare of others.

b. a normal stage of development.

74

In intersubjective psychoanalysis, the theoretical location within which unconscious activity occurs is called:
a. the inter-relational matrix.
b. the intersubjective dyad.
c. the self-object.
d. the intersubjective field

d. the intersubjective field

75

During a session, an intersubjective psychoanalyst will listen to couples to discern their:
a. self-object transferences.
b. drives
c. shifting affect and emerging self states.
d. object relations.

a. self-object transferences.

76

Relational psychoanalysis involves:
a. the mutual impact of external, interpersonal, or social relations, internal relations among persons, varied selfstates,
and object relations.
b. the impact of narcissistic transferences.
c. the mutual impact of internal, personal object relations as they affect other people
d. the mutual impact of drives on internal and external objects.

a. the mutual impact of external, interpersonal, or social relations, internal relations among persons, varied selfstates,

77

____________________ According to psychoanalytic theory, the analyst’s unconscious emotional responses to a patient that are reminiscent of feelings he or she experienced with a person in the past.

Countertransference

78

____________________ According to object relations theory, a primitive process by which an infant makes contradictory aspects of a mother or other nurturing figure less threatening by dividing the external person into a good object and a bad object and internalizing the split perception

Splitting

79

____________________ Imprints or memories from the past, usually based on unresolved relationships with one’s parents, that continue to impose themselves on current relationships, particularly with a spouse or one’s children.

Introjects

80

____________________ A setting where clients feel protected and safe because the therapist permissively accepts any free associations or spontaneous interactions. This context allows clients to access repressed or forgotten material needed for assessment.

Holding environment

81

What makes the behavioral approach unique among all psychotherapeutic endeavors is its:
a. attention to the formative years in the family life cycle.
b. insistence on a data-based set of procedures.
c. concern with electroshock processes.
d. concern with family narratives.

b. insistence on a data-based set of procedures.

82

Of the following, who is not considered a pioneer in cognitive and/or behavior therapy?
a. Selvini-Palazzolli
b. Patterson
c. Liberman
d. Stuart

a. Selvini-Palazzolli

83

Cognitive behavior therapy attempts to modify a client’s:
a. thoughts.
b. feelings.
c. impulses.
d. desires.

a. thoughts.

84

Albert Ellis employs the use of:
a. schemas.
b. attributions.
c. cognitive restructuring.
d. operant conditioning.

c. cognitive restructuring.

85

Aaron Beck views depressed persons as:
a. psychotic.
b. immature.
c. overwrought with feelings.
d. making errors in thinking.

d. making errors in thinking.

86

An enduring set of beliefs that organizes subsequent perceptions is known as:
a. schemas.
b. automatic thoughts.
c. rituals.
d. automatic writing.

a. schemas.

87

Which of the following is not an underlying assumption of behavior therapy?
a. Normal and abnormal behaviors are acquired and maintained in identical ways.
b. Assessment is an ongoing part of treatment.
c. Behavior disorders represent learned maladaptive patterns.
d. To modify or extinguish behavior, it is necessary to discover the set of circumstances in which the behavior was learned.

d. To modify or extinguish behavior, it is necessary to discover the set of circumstances in which the behavior was learned.

88

Behavior analysis refers to:
a. an assessment procedure used by behavior therapists.
b. a self-management program.
c. classical but not operant conditioning.
d. operant but not classical conditioning.

a. an assessment procedure used by behavior therapists.

89

A problem analysis:
a. tries to uncover the underlying problem.
b. pinpoints the specific behavioral deficit.
c. measures therapeutic changes.
d. None of the answers are correct.

b. pinpoints the specific behavioral deficit.

90

Uncovering the relationship between behavioral deficits and the client’s interpersonal environment is called:
a. behavior analysis.
b. problem analysis.
c. functional analysis.
d. intersubjective psychoanalysis.

c. functional analysis.

91

Cognitive-behavioral therapists traditionally work at three related levels. Which is not one of these levels?
a. Underlying assumptions
b. Automatic thoughts
c. Schemas
d. Affect

d. Affect

92

Cognitive-behavioral family therapists rely, for assessment purposes, on:
a. observable behavior.
b. underlying causal agents inside family members.
c. projective techniques.
d. All of the answers are correct.

a. observable behavior.

93

“He says he has to work late tonight. He’d rather be with someone else than me,” is an example of a(n):
a. selective abstraction.
b. arbitrary inference.
c. overgeneralization.
d. All of the answers are correct.

b. arbitrary inference.

94

Operant interpersonal therapy represents a blend of operant learning principles and:
a. Gestalt psychology.
b. social exchange theory.
c. classical conditioning principles.
d. experiential psychology.

b. social exchange theory.

95

Behavioral couple therapists sometimes have partners list desirable behaviors each wants from the other, as a demonstration of commitment to the relationship. These are what is to be exchanged as part of:
a. caring days.
b. communication guides.
c. “fair play” lists.
d. couple change days.

a. caring days.

96

Increasingly, behavioral couple therapists are attending to client:
a. positive reinforcements.
b. negative reinforcements.
c. thoughts, attitudes, and expressions of feelings.
d. contracting.

c. thoughts, attitudes, and expressions of feelings.

97

Cognitive restructuring calls for:
a. emotional catharsis.
b. classical conditioning to be effective.
c. changing belief structures about marriage.
d. operant conditioning to be effective.

c. changing belief structures about marriage.

98

Integrative couples therapy:
a. derives from psychoanalysis.
b. is a strictly behavioral approach.
c. seeks partner acceptance.
d. developed from the Milan model.

c. seeks partner acceptance.

99

Gottman calls four forms of negativity between marital partners the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. Which of the following is not one of them?
a. Criticism
b. Stonewalling
c. Defensiveness
d. Dominance

d. Dominance

100

Child management problems are frequently dealt with by behavior therapists using a social _______________
model.
a. modification
b. stratification
c. adherence
d. learning

d. learning

101

Patterson views aggression in children as a:
a. mental health problem.
b. behavioral problem.
c. displacement problem.
d. development task to master.

b. behavioral problem.

102

Family management skills training:
a. treats parents whose children develop behavior problems.
b. treats parents and children together in a group.
c. trains parents in behavioral principles and techniques.
d. trains children by acting as surrogate parents.

c. trains parents in behavioral principles and techniques.

103

For the most part, behavioral parent training attempts to change:
a. the child’s deviant behavior.
b. the family’s interactive pattern.
c. marital tensions in the family.
d. intergenerational conflicts.

a. the child’s deviant behavior.

104

“Time-out” from positive reinforcements is probably most useful when working with:
a. young children.
b. adolescents.
c. college students.
d. the elderly.

a. young children.

105

Contingency contracting is a behavioral procedure that is probably most useful with:
a. young children.
b. adolescents.
c. college students.
d. the elderly.

b. adolescents.

106

Functional family therapy attempts to bring about __________________ changes in individuals and their families.
a. psychic but not cognitive
b. exclusively behavioral
c. both behavioral and cognitive
d. exclusively cognitive

c. both behavioral and cognitive

107

Functional family therapists believe:
a. all behavior is adaptive.
b. it is essential to distinguish altruistic from malevolent behavior.
c. that linear explanations apply to children’s behavioral problems.
d. in intrapsychic but not interpersonal explanations.

a. all behavior is adaptive.

108

Functional family therapy has been shown to be effective in dealing with:
a. psychotic behavior.
b. adolescent at-risk behavior.
c. marital conflict.
d. sexual problems.

a. psychotic behavior.

109

The pioneering therapeutic work with sexual problems has been led by:
a. Ackerman.
b. Alexander.
c. Masters and Johnson.
d. Patterson.

c. Masters and Johnson.

110

Which of these statements is true?
a. Sex therapy has become more medicalized in recent years.
b. Most sex therapy programs today call for daily sessions.
c. Beck’s sex therapy model is still predominant in the field.
d. Kaplan’s behavioral model remains a popular approach for sexual dysfunction.

a. Sex therapy has become more medicalized in recent years.

111

Schnarch’s work on the “sexual crucible” is based on whose model?
a. Alexander
b. Ackerman
c. Bowen
d. Kaplan

c. Bowen

112

Which of the following does not characterize Meichenbaum’s work with distressed clients:
a. emphasizing narrative repair.
b. establishing caring days.
c. incorporating a constructivist perspective
d. involving collaborative sessions.

a. emphasizing narrative repair.

113

________ purports to integrate learning theory, systems theory, and cognitive theory.
a. Alternative dispute resolution
b. Conflict resolution
c. Emotionally focused therapy
d. Functional family therapy

d. Functional family therapy

114

______ helps change clients’ assumptions and schemas about the world and their ability to manage stress.
a. Contingency contract
b. Classical conditioning
c. Narrative repair
d. Intersystem approach

c. Narrative repair

115

____________________ An assessment procedure in which a therapist identifies the targeted behavior to be changed, determines the factors currently maintaining the behavior, and formulates a treatment plan that includes specific criteria for measuring the success of the change effort.

Behavioral analysis

116

____________________ Training couples in communication skills, the exchange of positive reinforcements, cognitive restructuring, and problem-solving skills in order to facilitate marital satisfaction.

Behavioral couples therapy

117

____________________ A behavioral assessment of a problem in order to determine what interpersonal or environmental contingencies elicit the problematic behavior and how to extinguish or reduce its occurrence.

Functional analysis

118

____________________ A therapeutic approach based on systems theory, cognitive theory, and behavioral principles in which clients are helped to understand the function or interpersonal payoff of certain of their behaviors as a prelude to substituting more effective ways to achieve the same results.

Functional family therapy

119

_____________________ As used by behavioral family therapists, written negotiated agreements between family members to make specific behavior changes in the future.

Therapeutic contracts

120

The umpire who insists he "calls 'em as he sees 'em" is taking a:
a. modernist view.
b. constructivist view
c. essentialist view.
d. social constructionist view.

b. constructivist view

121

According to postmodern thinking, "romantic love" is a:
a. social invention.
b. necessity for couple contentment.
c. part of all relationships.
d. All of the answers are correct

a. social invention.

122

Constructivism emphasizes the:
a. objective construction of reality.
b. subjective construction of reality
c. family’s view of reality.
d. therapist’s view of reality.

b. subjective construction of reality

123

Postmodern therapists are apt to be:
a. collaborators.
b. manipulative.
c. detached observers
d. interpretive of family behavior.

a. collaborators.

124

Postmodern therapists attend particularly to a family’s:
a. dysfunctional structure.
b. flawed interactive patterns.
c. “dirty games.”
d. assumptions regarding their problems.

d. assumptions regarding their problems.

125

According to the text, the postmodern outlook permits the
a. therapist to be in charge.
b. therapist to not be an expert.
c. family to be programmed for success.
d. None of the answers are correct.

b. therapist to not be an expert.

126

Postmodern views can be linked to:
a. Bowen.
b. Minuchin.
c. Boscolo and Cecchin.
d. Ackerman and Framo.

c. Boscolo and Cecchin.

127

Therapists influenced by postmodern thinking help clients:
a. find new meanings in their life situations.
b. gain insight into their early relationships.
c. engage in self-differentiation.
d. develop clearer boundaries.

a. find new meanings in their life situations.

128

The family therapist most closely identified with solution-focused brief therapy is:
a. Segal.
b. Erickson.
c. de Shazer.
d. White.

c. de Shazer.

129

In solution-focused brief therapy, “skeleton keys” refer to:
a. reconstructing old repressed memories.
b. paring down problems to their basic elements.
c. interventions that work for a variety of “locks.”
d. All of the answers are correct.

c. interventions that work for a variety of “locks.”

130

The notion of client resistance to change:
a. is challenged by solution-focused therapists.
b. is endorsed by solution-focused therapists.
c. has been abandoned by all family therapists.
d. is championed by de Shazer.

a. is challenged by solution-focused therapists.

131

The “miracle question” allows clients to:
a. speculate on their future once the problem is gone.
b. put their faith in the therapeutic process.
c. seek a religious experience
d. theoretically integrate spirituality within solution-focused therapy

a. speculate on their future once the problem is gone.

132

Exception-finding questions:
a. are efforts to manipulate clients.
b. are rarely used by solution-focused therapists.
c. build on past successes in dealing with a problem.
d. are part of reflecting team strategies.

b. are rarely used by solution-focused therapists.

133

Clients who describe their unhappiness but wait for their partner to change first are called what by solution-focused therapists?
a. Visitors
b. Customers
c. Non-participants
d. Complainants

d. Complainants

134

The Milwaukee Brief Therapy Center makes use of:
a. one-way mirrors and intercom systems.
b. co-therapy.
c. multiple impact therapy.
d. low impact therapy.

a. one-way mirrors and intercom systems.

135

Solution-oriented therapists:
a. offer insights through their interpretations.
b. provide families with solutions to their problems.
c. create a collaborative dialogue with families.
d. rely on reflecting teams to offer solutions.

c. create a collaborative dialogue with families.

136

Solution-oriented therapy is based on all but one of the following sources. Which one does not fit?
a. The ideas of Salvador Minuchin
b. The ideas of Milton Erickson
c. The ideas of Steve de Shazer
d. The ideas of the Mental Research Institute

a. The ideas of Salvador Minuchin

137

Possibility therapy is the invention of:
a. Rogers.
b. O'Hanlon.
c. de Shazer
d. White.

b. O'Hanlon.

138

Hudson and O'Hanlon help couples recognize that:
a. “the map represents the territory.”
b. they can rewrite the story of their relationship
c. one partner has a clearer view of reality than the other.
d. solution-oriented therapy can explain their problems

b. they can rewrite the story of their relationship

139

According to collaborative therapists, problems are created through:
a. interpersonal conflict.
b. behavioral sequences.
c. language.
d. None of the answers are correct.

c. language.

140

Which of the following does not characterize the work of Anderson and Goolishian?
a. Human systems are meaning-generating systems
b. Human systems are language-generating systems
c. In therapeutic conversation
d. All of the answers are correct.

d. All of the answers are correct.

141

The Houston-Galveston Institute is known for its:
a. reflecting team emphasis.
b. language systems approach.
c. solution-focused therapy.
d. narrative therapy.

b. language systems approach.

142

In the Goolishian-Anderson approach, therapist and client are:
a. conversational partners.
b. adversarial in describing reality.
c. both resistant to change.
d. All of the answers are correct.

a. conversational partners.

143

"Problems are stories that people have agreed to tell themselves.” This statement is consistent with the viewpoint of all
of the following except one. Which one does not fit?
a. Whitaker
b. Goolishian
c. Hoffman
d. Hare-Mustin

d. Hare-Mustin

144

Anderson and Goolishian view therapy as a(n):
a. linguistic event.
b. self-differentiating event.
c. insight-attaining event.
d. None of the answers are correct.

a. linguistic event.

145

Hermeneutics represents an approach to knowledge that emphasizes:
a. home study.
b. individual interpretation of events influenced by the observer’s beliefs.
c. groupthink.
d. All of the answers are correct.

b. individual interpretation of events influenced by the observer’s beliefs.

146

A major goal of the linguistic approach is:
a. solving the family’s problem.
b. dis-solving the family’s problem.
c. maintaining the complaint.
d. seeking answers to the miracle question.

b. dis-solving the family’s problem.

147

Reflecting teams demonstrate a:
a. postmodern approach.
b. constructivist outlook
c. view of multiple realities.
d. All of the answers are correct.

d. All of the answers are correct.

148

Reflecting teams make use of:
a. one-way mirrors.
b. two-way mirrors.
c. supervisors entering the consultation room.
d. supervisors telephoning suggestions to the therapist.

b. two-way mirrors.

149

Narrative therapists use reflecting teams to:
a. eavesdrop on family conversations.
b. support the family’s development of new narratives about themselves.
c. solve family problems.
d. develop scaling questions.

b. support the family’s development of new narratives about themselves.

150

Modernists tended to assume that a condition called “_______” did exist and could be defined and used as a kind of
measure against which experience could be understood.
a. subjectivity
b. solution talk
c. normality
d. social therapy

c. normality

151

This is when therapist and clients discuss solutions they want to construct together.
a. subjectivity
b. Solution talk
c. Normality
d. Social therapy

b. Solution talk

152

Within the therapist–client relationship, clients are categorized as all of the following except:
a. visitors.
b. complainants
c. customers.
d. non-participants.

d. non-participants.

153

____________________ These formal interventions or stock prescriptions can be used with many different types of problems.

Skeleton keys

154

____________________ Ask the family how things would be different if change occurred and the problem were solved. This question encourages the family to think about change and exactly what would happen if changes occurred.

Miracle question

155

____________________ A process involving two-way mirrors in which team members observe a family and then discuss their thoughts and observations in front of the family and therapist. Later, the therapist and family discuss the team’s conversations about them

Reflecting teams

156

____________________ The postmodern theory that there is no objective “truth,” only versions of “reality” constructed from social interaction, including conversation, with others.

Social construction theory

157

____________________ A philosophical outlook rejecting the notion that there exists an objectively knowable universe discoverable by impartial science, and instead arguing that there are multiple views of reality ungoverned by universal laws.

Postmodern

158

The belief that our view of reality is based on the stories by which we circulate knowledge about ourselves is called:
a. redundancy metaphor.
b. narrative metaphor.
c. narrative imperative.
d. redundancy imperative.

b. narrative metaphor.

159

Narrative therapists believe our current lives are directed by the ___________ we have woven together about ourselves.
a. self-commands
b. dominant stories
c. self-reflections
d. subjugated stories

b. dominant stories

160

A common goal of narrative therapy is:
a. self-actualization.
b. anger management.
c. creating and internalizing new stories.
d. using myths and other powerful stories to impart meaning to our lives.

c. creating and internalizing new stories.

161

The authors contend that narrative therapy emerged from:
a. poststructuralism.
b. postmodernism.
c. structural family therapy.
d. experiential family therapy.

a. poststructuralism.

162

Who among the following is not a forerunner of narrative therapy?
a. Meyerhoff
b. Foucault
c. Bruner
d. Ellis

d. Ellis

163

White refers to seeking to discover a person’s underlying traits as relying on:
a. thin descriptions.
b. thick descriptions.
c. intentional descriptions.
d. multistoried descriptions.

a. thin descriptions.

164

Calling another person lazy is making use of a _____________ description.
a. thin
b. thick
c. intentional
d. multistoried

a. thin

165

According to White, a comprehensive understanding of a person calls for:
a. thin descriptions.
b. thick descriptions.
c. intentional descriptions.
d. multistoried descriptions.

b. thick descriptions.

166

In working with families, narrative therapists consider themselves:
a. collaborating partners.
b. experts in family relationships.
c. cybernetic explorers.
d. All of the answers are correct.

a. collaborating partners.

167

Deconstruction, according to narrative therapists, refers to disassembling:
a. closed systems.
b. entropic systems.
c. family roles, rules, and hierarchies.
d. family assumptions about themselves.

d. family assumptions about themselves.

168

Narrative therapists believe we attempt to make sense of our lives through:
a. group membership.
b. self-narratives.
c. spirituality.
d. dormant stories.

b. self-narratives.

169

Which of the following statements is true?
a. Narrative therapists re-author people’s lives.
b. The main thrust of narrative therapists is in working with anorexics.
c. Cultural stories often provide dominant narratives to a family.
d. Narrative therapists act as “editors” who work on people’s self-narratives.

c. Cultural stories often provide dominant narratives to a family.

170

White views stories that oppress people’s lives through a political lens, largely due to the influence of:
a. Foucault.
b. Whitaker.
c. Jacobson.
d. Gottman.

a. Foucault.

171

Foucault viewed language as:
a. a way of discovering reality.
b. an instrument of power.
c. dissolving problems.
d. None of the answers are correct.

b. an instrument of power.

172

Narrative therapy was developed to help clients:
a. articulate their problems.
b. gain insight.
c. reexamine the stories that have shaped their lives.
d. reconstruct early trauma.

c. reexamine the stories that have shaped their lives.

173

Externalizing a restraining problem is meant to:
a. help explore family dynamics.
b. understand family transaction patterns.
c. help search for past traumatic events.
d. help separate the person’s identity from his or her problem.

d. help separate the person’s identity from his or her problem.

174

In externalizing conversations, narrative therapists try to help clients:
a. attach new meanings to their experiences.
b. recognize that the client with the symptom is the problem.
c. recognize that the family is the problem.
d. tell themselves they no longer have the problem.

a. attach new meanings to their experiences.

175

In narrative therapy, White helps families:
a. internalize a problem.
b. externalize a problem.
c. subjectify a problem.
d. All of the answers are correct.

b. externalize a problem.

176

White’s style is directed at all but one of the following. Which one?
a. What the person is experiencing
b. How the problem is being experienced
c. Why the problem is being experienced
d. How the client would describe the problem

c. Why the problem is being experienced

177

White’s narrative approach encourages families to:
a. create alternative accounts of their lives.
b. gain awareness of the origins of their problem.
c. attend to reflecting team observations.
d. develop a problem-saturated perspective.

a. create alternative accounts of their lives.

178

A boy who gets into mischief at school is asked “How do you feel about what Mr. Trouble has done to you?” The therapist is probably:
a. transgenerational.
b. solution-focused.
c. narrative.
d. solution-oriented.

c. narrative.

179

White’s therapeutic approach is based on:
a. making interpretations.
b. employing therapeutic questions.
c. issuing directives.
d. using paradoxical interventions.

b. employing therapeutic questions.

180

“We never know from day to day what mood our daughter will be in.” This statement is an example of a(n):
a. empowering story.
b. internalizing story.
c. problem-saturated story.
d. externalizing story.

c. problem-saturated story.

181

Unique outcomes are:
a. therapeutic successes.
b. part of problem-saturated stories.
c. entry points for exploring alternative stories.
d. All of the answers are correct.

c. entry points for exploring alternative stories.

182

Ellen expresses her viewpoint at a meeting, although she is shy and her self-doubt usually tries to silence her. Narrative therapists view this as a(n):
a. exception.
b. unique outcome.
c. possibility.
d. aberration.

b. unique outcome.

183

Unique outcomes pertain to the:
a. past and present.
b. present and the future.
c. past and future.
d. past, present and future.

d. past, present and future.

184

Unique outcomes typically _______________ the troubled family’s dominant story.
a. contradict
b. reinforce
c. confirm
d. are unrelated to

a. contradict

185

Outside witness groups:
a. are usually made up of extended family members.
b. help reinforce alternative narratives.
c. are often used in solution-focused therapy.
d. have no place in brief therapy.

b. help reinforce alternative narratives.

186

Outside witness groups represent:
a. reflecting teams.
b. professionals familiar with the case.
c. therapeutic leagues.
d. a jury of one’s peers.

d. a jury of one’s peers.

The test bank key says:

a. reflecting teams.

But reflecting teams are groups of professionals. Outside witness groups are non-professionals.

187

Anthropologist Barbara Meyerhoff’s work on _______________ has been adopted by narrative therapists.
a. possibility therapy
b. anorexia and bulimia
c. definitional ceremonies
d. unique outcomes

c. definitional ceremonies

188

A person with a drinking problem allows two friends who have overcome a similar problem to sit behind a one-way mirror to observe him and his therapist during a session. Later, they change places. The original observers are:
a. unrevealing of their reactions.
b. interpretive.
c. hospital personnel only.
d. an outside witness group.

d. an outside witness group.

189

Using therapeutic letters to summarize sessions is a technique introduced by:
a. Bruner.
b. Epston.
c. Meyerhoff.
d. Morgan.

b. Epston.

190

Redundancy letters refer to:
a. urging reluctant family members to attend sessions.
b. termination of therapy announcements.
c. urging specific family members to give up duplicate roles in the family.
d. summarizing a previous month’s worth of sessions.

c. urging specific family members to give up duplicate roles in the family.

191

An example of banding together to deal with a common problem is:
a. The Possibility League.
b. The Anti-Dysphoria League.
c. The Anti Anorexia/Anti-Bulimia League.
d. None of the answers are correct.

c. The Anti Anorexia/Anti-Bulimia League.

192

Which is not true of Madigan’s league in Vancouver?
a. It is a politically active group.
b. It emphasizes that the problems addressed are rooted in one of society’s dominant discourses.
c. It insists the person is not the problem.
d. It uses one-way mirrors.

d. It uses one-way mirrors.

193

_____________________ This is the process by which a new story is developed.

Reconstruction/re-authoring

194

_____________________ Following therapy, letters are written to the family that summarize the sessions, invite reluctant members to attend future sessions, and address the future. This serves the purpose of extending
conversations while encouraging family members to record or map out their own futures.

Letters

195

_____________________ A postmodern procedure for gaining meaning by reexamining assumptions previously taken for granted, in the service of constructing new and unencumbered meanings.

Deconstruction

196

_____________________ In the narrative approach, helping families view the problem or symptom as occurring outside of themselves, in an effort to mobilize them to overcome it.

Externalization

197

_____________________ In narrative therapy, those instances when the client did not experience the problem; such outcomes are intended to help contradict a client’s problem-saturated outlook.

Unique outcomes

198

Major disadvantage of managed care for therapy clients.

Due to managed care disclosure requirements, client may withhold vital information from therapist or even not seek treatment in the first place.

199

Areas in which managed care affects therapy and therapists.

ethics

resource allocation

therapist accountability

development of brief interventions

200

8 common types of malpractice suits.

  • Failure to obtain/document informed consent
  • Practicing outside area of competence
  • Negligent/improper treatment
  • Client abandonment
  • Physical contact/sexual relations
  • Failure to prevent dangerous clients from harming selves or others
  • Failure to consult another practitioner or refer a client
  • Failure to adequately supervise students or assistants

201

4 elements of a successful malpractice claim.

  • Professional relationship giving rise to a duty of care;
  • Demonstrable standard of care that was breached;
  • Plaintiff suffered physical or psychological harm; and
  • The professional’s breach of duty directly caused the plaintiff’s harm.

202

Four typical scenarios that might involve a therapist in other people’s court proceedings.

  1. To report abuse.
  2. As a court-ordered witness testifying about relevant legal issues before the court.
  3. As an expert witness to offer professional opinion, based on knowledge of behavioral science research and typical professional recommendations.
  4. As a child custody evaluator.

203

Shifting counseling focus from individual to a couple or family gives rise to what two broad categories of unique and complex ethical issues?

  • Who gets therapist’s primary loyalty/responsibility?
  • Prioritize the good of the family over that of the individual?

204

Three possible therapist positions on family secrets.

  • Confidentiality belongs to individual: secrets shared in individual session are not shared with other family members, although the individual may be urged to reveal the secret in conjoint session.
  • Refuse to see any family member separately, insisting that secrets be brought out in the open.
  • Tell the informant beforehand that secrets may be communicated to others if the therapist deems it necessary.

205

Four major exceptions to confidentiality.

  1. When mandated by law, as in reporting child abuse, incest, child neglect, or elder abuse.
  2. When necessary to protect clients from harming themselves or when they pose a danger to others.
  3. When the family therapist is a defendant in a civil, criminal, or disciplinary action arising from the therapy.
  4. When a waiver has previously been obtained in writing.

206

Issue that arises when one family member refuses to participate in therapy and therapist conditions treatment on all members participating.

Coercion - Risk of denying willing family members access to therapy unless they convince unwilling members to participate.

207

Appropriate therapist responses to a prolonged impasse in therapy.

Reassessment, referral, or consultation.

208

Criteria for a sound theory.

Comprehensive

Parsimonious

Verifiable

Precise

Empirically valid

Stimulating

209

Adlerian concepts that involve the role of family experiences in influencing adult behavior.

sibling rivalry

family constellation

birth order

style of life

210

Goal of Adlerian therapy.

to promote changes in both individuals and the family as a whole

211

Basic principles of Adlerian therapy.

  • Promotion of new understanding and insight about purposes, goals, and behaviors.
  • Enhancement of skills and knowledge in areas like communication, problem solving, and conflict resolution.
  • Increase of social interests and positive connections with others.
  • Encouragement of commitment to ongoing growth.

212

Five psychoanalytic perspectives in therapy

  • Classical psychoanalytic drive theories a la Freud.
  • Object relations theory, a revision of earlier psychoanalytic formulations with emphasis on human motivation to be in relationships.
  • Self psychology theory of Heinz Kohut, which replaces classical drive theory with a relational conceptualization of personality formation.
  • Theory of intersubjectivity, which posits that psychological phenomena occur within an intersubjective field constituted of the subjective worlds of child and caregiver or of patient and analyst.
  • Relational psychoanalytic theory, a contemporary approach that links the influence on personality development of internalized object relations, self states, and interpersonal or social relations.

213

The four components of a drive in classical psychoanalytic theory.

  1. An aim—e.g., release of sexual or aggressive tension.
  2. A source—e.g., need for bodily nourishment.
  3. An impetus—pressure or urgency of the drive.
  4. An object—a person or thing or condition that will satisfy the drive.

214

Three Freudian concepts that remain important to any psychodynamic approach to individual or family therapy

  • Transference: client’s unconscious “transfer” of feelings, wishes, and reactions related to important people from childhood (usually the parents) onto the therapist.
  • Countertransference: therapist’s unconscious experiences that emerge during analysis; may interfere with therapist’s ability to interact positively with client but, properly understood, can offer important clues about patient’s inner world or unconscious dynamics between therapist and patient.
  • Resistance: any unconscious impediment experienced by the client (or, countertransferentially, the analyst) to the unfolding of therapy.

215

Psychodynamic family approaches simultaneously address two levels of understanding and intervention:

  1. The motives, fantasies, unconscious conflicts, and repressed memories of each family member; and
  2. The complex world of family interaction and family dynamics.

216

Two ways Nathan Ackerman departed from traditional child guidance practices.

seeing whole families together and having staff members make home visits to client families

217

Built bridge between psychoanalytic theory and emerging systems theories.

Nathan Ackerman

218

Per Nathan Ackerman, ______ occurs when change and growth become constricted.

failure of complementarity

219

Nathan Ackerman's technique of gently provoking participants to openly and honestly express what they feel, deal with issues previously avoided as too dangerous.

tickling the defenses

220

_____ developed the conceptual model of interlocking pathology in family relationships.

Nathan Ackerman

221

The best expression of the psychodynamic approach today.

object relations

222

______ views the infant’s experiences in relationship to the mother or primary caregiver as the main determinant of adult personality formation.

Object relations theory

223

Theorists who provided much of the foundation of object relations theory.

Bowlby and Klein

224

Degree to which a person resolves _____ provides basis for how well he develops satisfying human relationships later in life. If unresolved, _____ may lead to lability and a tendency to see people as all good/all bad.

splitting; splitting

225

In the first year of life, the child, in order to reconcile discrepant experiences with the mother, internalizes an image of mother into an idealized good object (satisfying and loving) and a bad object (inaccessible/frustrating). Part of mother is loved, another part hated. Fairbairn called this process ___.

splitting

226

Dicks proposed that marriages are influenced by each spouse's ____ experiences through the defense mechanism of ____________, in which we relate to people in the present partly on the basis of expectations formed by early relationship experiences.

infantile; projective identification

227

In the object relations perspective, individuals may bring serious personal emotional problems into a relationship, and pathology need not exist only in the _____.

transaction between people

228

In object relations theory, the ___ is the safe and nurturing environment provided by the mother to her infant that supports good-enough psychological development.

holding environment

229

Framo believed the most powerful obstacle to change is _____.

people’s attachments to their parental introjects

230

In Framo's theory, a major source of marital strife stems from _____: spouses project disowned aspects of themselves onto their mates or children and then attack them.

projective identification

231

Framo began by treating entire family but, believing a ____’s symptomatic behavior to be simply a means of deflecting attention from ____ conflict, he dismissed the _____ once they were detriangulated and then worked only with the ____.

child; marital; children; marital dyad

232

Three stages of Framo's couples therapy.

1. conjoint therapy

2. couples group therapy

3. family of origin conferences

233

In object relations family therapy, helping family members become conscious of how they ____ objects from the past and how these objects intrude on current relationships provides understanding and instigates changes.

internalized

234

In object relations family therapy, ____ is essential, and the therapist's stance is ___.

interpretation; neutral

235

The object relations family therapist provides a _____ where empathy and safety are provided.

shared holding environment

236

In object relations family therapy, ____ occurs between family members, between each family member and the therapist, and between the family as a group and the therapist.

transference

237

In object relations family therapy, successful treatment is measured not by symptom relief in identified patient, but by improvement in the family’s ____ and ____.

self-understanding;

capacity to master developmental stress

238

The fundamental goal of object relations family therapy.

for the family to support one another’s needs for attachment, individuation, and growth

239

____ is theory of psychoanalysis emphasizing relationship between the self and outside objects as the defining organizational principle of human life.

Self psychology

240

According to Kohut, ___ is neither self nor object but the self-sustaining psychic function that takes place within a self in its relationship to others (objects) who by their presence help sustain and support the self’s sense of itself—ex: mother’s breast.

Selfobject

241

In self psychology based therapy, the ___ is analyzed by exploring the ___ transference, which is co-created by the client and analyst.

selfobject; selfobject

242

Kohut maintains an infant does not yet have a ___ but develops one through interactions with and responses from selfobjects.

self

243

Kohut believes ___ is ever present, especially among infants and young children, and represents a stage of development. Patients with narcissistic personality disorders have a defect in the structure of the self, not having successfully completed the integration of the grandiose self and idealized object into a ____.

narcissism; reality-oriented self

244

In self psychology, ____ is the acceptance (even celebration) by someone (parent or therapist) of another person’s narcissistic self such that the person may experience self-acceptance.

mirroring

245

In intersubjective psychoanalysis, ____ are recurrent patterns of intersubjective transactions between people (ex: mother/child or client/analyst).

organizing principles

246

Exception-finding questions:
a. are efforts to manipulate clients.
b. are rarely used by solution-focused therapists.
c. build on past successes in dealing with a problem.
d. are part of reflecting team strategies.

c. build on past successes in dealing with a problem.

247

In intersubjective psychoanalysis, the analyst uses ____ and ____ as guiding principles, and client and therapist ___ relationship.

empathy

introspection

co-construct

248

A/n ___________ is a dynamic psychological system consisting of the reciprocally interacting and differently organized subjective worlds of parent and child (or client and therapist).

intersubjective field

249

In _____, patient and analyst may analyze each other.

relational psychoanalysis

250

Relational psychoanalysts who appreciate the mutual therapist-patient relationship refer to relational psychoanalysis as ___.

two-person psychology

251

Most relational analysts today don’t engage in ____ but do include ____—which runs contrary to the Freudian notion of the analyst as a “blank screen” onto which the client’s transferences are projected.

mutual analysis; selective disclosure

252

____ attached infants become upset if the mother leaves but are easily calmed when she returns.

Securely

253

____ attached infants loudly protest mother’s departure but are not comforted by her return.

Anxious-ambivalently

254

___ attached infants seek little connection to mother, showing no distress when she leaves and often rejecting offers of comfort.

Anxious-avoidantly

255

Infants with ___ attachment manifest behavior that doesn’t fit the original insecure categories but still appears insecure.

disorganized-disorientated

256

Early behaviorists rarely directed therapy at the ____.

whole family

257

____ was based on operant (Skinnerian) conditioning—certain voluntarily emitted responses strengthened by selectively reinforcing them.

Behavioral couples therapy

258

A ____ is a written schedule describing the terms for the exchange of mutually reinforcing behaviors between individuals in a family.

contingency contract

259

Among cognitive-behaviorists, ___'s view was more consistent with the systems perspective.

Beck

260

CBT seeks to alter ___ and teach client new methods for evaluating other beliefs.

negative schemas

261

In Beck's theory applied to families, _____ are shared beliefs about what is occurring in the family.

Family schemas

262

The unique contribution of the cognitive-behavioral approach is its insistence on ____ -based procedures and ____ methodology.

data; scientific

263

The cognitive-behavioral viewpoint focuses on the ____, but most cognitive-behavioral family therapists today continue to view family interactions as maintained by ___ events preceding and following each member’s behavior.

identified patient; environmental

264

The two levels of a behavioral assessment of family functioning.

  • problem analysis
  • functional analysis

265

In a behavioral assessment, ____ are crucial because all behavior is maintained by its consequences.

environmental circumstances

266

In behavioral therapy, ____ is not necessarily important, as emphasis is on environmental, situational, and social determinants that influence behavior.

insight

267

Cognitive-behavioral assessment includes a functional analysis of ____ that influence the family members’ behaviors.

inner experiences

268

Three main forms of cognitive-behavioral clinical assessment.

  1. Self-report questionnaires
  2. Individual and joint interviews
  3. Direct behavioral observations of family interaction

269

The behaviorally oriented family therapist is more likely than a systems-based therapist to use ____ (like skills training) and not to insist on participation of the ____.

distinct clinical procedures; entire family

270

Behavioral family therapists view the ____ as a burden on the family, who might be unwittingly responding in ways that support and maintain his problem behavior.

patient

271

In contrast to the ____ outlook on causality of a systems therapist, a behavioral therapist has a ____ outlook.

circular; linear

272

Basic premise of _____ is that behavior of both partners in a marital relationship is shaped by environmental events, especially those involving the other spouse.

behavioral marital therapy (BMT) or behavioral couples therapy

273

Stuart developed _____, which used (among other things) contingency contracting to try to get couples to maximize the exchange of positive behaviors.

operant interpersonal therapy

274

Liberman attempted to restructure the _____ between partners by increasing certain target behaviors and decreasing others by directly manipulating the external contingencies of reinforcement.

reciprocal exchange of rewards

275

Communication/problem-solving training was added to ____ to help couples negotiate conflict resolutions in ____ ways.

behavioral therapy; noncoercive

276

____ in behavioral couples therapy were written agreements between spouses stipulating specific behavioral changes—were negotiated, explicitly stating the desired behavior and thus avoiding the expectation for “mind reading.”

Therapeutic contracts

277

Jacobson and Margolin (1979) taught couples more effective problem-solving skills in two phases: ____ and ____.

  • problem definition
  • problem resolution

278

____ attempts to change couple's behavior by (1) encouraging partners to define specific behaviors they want from each other and (2) teaching couples communication and problem solving skills.

Behavioral couples therapy

279

Proponents of _____ argue that behavior change alone isn't sufficient to achieve permanent conflict resolution.

cognitive-behavioral therapy

280

Cognitive-behavioral family therapy is aimed at restructuring ______ that affect automatic thoughts and emotional responses.

distorted beliefs (schemas)

281

Distortions in evaluating experiences derived from negative automatic thoughts are labeled as _____ and further subcategorized as ____ and ___.

arbitrary inferences; overgeneralizations; selective abstractions

282

___ was the “third wave” of behavioral therapy for its additional emphasis on acceptance, affect, and mindfulness.

integrative couples therapy

283

_____ was developed in part to provide additional strategies for partners who are unwilling or unable to make the changes the other desires.

integrative couples therapy

284

Two major figures of integrative couples therapy.

Jacobson and Christensen

285

Integrative couples therapy delineates various procedures to help couples see differences between them as inevitable while helping them foster ______ concerning perceived negative behaviors in a partner and to see minor _____ as _____ differences.

tolerance; incompatibilities; reconcilable

286

____ refers to situations when behavior change either fails to occur or else occurs but not the desired extent; it’s a balancing of change with acceptance of those behaviors not open to change.

Emotional acceptance

287

Emotional acceptance can be enhanced by ____ or ____.

experiencing the problem in a new way (e.g., as a common enemy) or reducing the aversiveness of the partner’s action through tolerance or increased self-care.

288

The Gottmans studied indicators such as body movements, facial expressions, gestures, and heart rates during conflict to identify those _____ and ____ responses essential to a stable marriage as well as those that predict divorce.

behavioral and physiological

289

Gottman's four forms of negativity (Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse).

  1. Criticism
  2. Defensiveness
  3. Contempt
  4. Stonewalling

290

In Gottman's theory, a/n _____ consists of emotionally flooding, viewing problems as severe, not wanting to work out problems, living parallel lives, and experiencing loneliness.

distance and isolation cascade

291

Gottman's 8 relationship dysfunctions that predict divorce or misery.

  1. More negativity than positivity
  2. Escalation of negative affect
  3. Turning away in response to attempts to relate.
  4. Failure of repair attempts.
  5. Negative sentiment override.
  6. Maintaining vigilance and physiological arousal.
  7. Chronic diffuse (generalized) physiological arousal.
  8. Failure of man to accept woman's influence.

292

Posited the theory of the Sound Relationship House to describe relationships that navigate the challenges of life well.

Gottman

293

____ advocates accept the parents’ view that the child is the problem and aim to alter the undesirable behavior in the child.

Behavioral parent training (BPT)

294

Patterson and Reid developed treatment programs, based on ____ principles, to teach parents how to reduce and prevent antisocial behavior in children and adolescents.

social learning

295

In behavioral parent training, a child's antisocial behaviors are seen as resulting from a faulty parent-child interaction pattern that is being maintained via a reciprocal process of ___ between parent and child.

coercion

296

Parent Management Training, the Oregon Model, adds ____ and ___ to behavioral parent training.

role playing and a parent-child contract

297

In a ______, each participant specifies who is to do what for whom, under which circumstances, times and places; usually outlines an exchange of positively rewarding behaviors.

contingency contract

298

_____ techniques include modeling, shaping (successive approximation), time out, use of tokens, and other operant reinforcement strategies.

Behavioral parent training

299

_________ may be adapted for couples facing the consequences of an extramarital affair, using a forgiveness model with three stages.

Behavioral couples therapy

300

_____ integrates learning theory, systems theory, and cognitive theory to foster both cognitive and behavioral changes in individuals and their families. It first seeks to help clients understand the ____ behavior plays in regulating relationships.

Functional family therapy; function

301

_____ aims to explain the causes of family members' behaviors in a nonblaming way such that new perceptions give rise to new behaviors.

Functional family therapy

302

_____ stated that "All behavior is adaptive" rather than good or bad.

James Alexander

303

The three phases of functional family therapy.

  1. Engagement and motivation
  2. Behavior change
  3. Generalization

304

Both _____ and _____ techniques have been applied to sex therapy, and interventions are usually brief and intensive.

behavioral and cognitive-behavioral

305

______ may be a metaphor for the dynamics of the couple’s relationship, and therapist may need to help them repair interpersonal struggles.

Sexual problems

306

The research of ____ and ____ found that sexual problems could arise from a variety of prior experiences, did not necessarily mean the symptomatic person was neurotic, and could be treated successfully without much attention to underlying causes.

Masters and Johnson

307

Masters and Johnson found the primary reason for sexual dysfunction is ____.

performance anxiety

308

_____ in sex therapy may improve performance but tend to obscure any underlying interpersonal distress that may be a causal or relapse factor in a couple’s difficulties.

Medical interventions

309

In ______, Schnarch teaches couples how to achieve both greater personal autonomy and sexual intimacy by developing emotionally committed relationships rather than attending to correcting the presenting symptoms of sexual dysfunction.

crucible therapy

310

_____ contend that multiple views of reality exist and absolute truth can’t be known.

Postmodernists

311

In ______ epistemology, each person constructs a personalized view and interpretation of their experience. The dominant beliefs of society are kept alive and passed along through _____ we share with one another.

constructivist; narratives

312

Postmodern therapists take a ____ stance, following leads as openings develop rather than imposing a predetermined scheme or framework for uncovering patterns.

not-knowing

313

Social constructionist therapists urge a shift in attention away from an inspection of the origin or exact nature of a family’s problems to an examination of the family members' ____ that account for how they have lived their lives.

stories

314

The 5 leading figures of solution-focused brief therapy.

De Shazer, Berg, Lipchik, Miller, and De Jong

315

A ____ rejects the idea that clients who come asking for change are at the same time resisting it.

solution-focused brief therapist

316

To promote cooperation, the SFBT therapist ___ clients on their strengths or past successes and encourages ___ that, once achieved, will lead to further changes.

compliments; small changes

317

An SFBT couples therapist tries to help clients replace an “either/or” position with a/n “___” substitute.

"both/and"

318

The ____ therapist assumes clients already know what they need to do to solve their complaints; therapist helps them use that knowledge differently.

solution-focused brief

319

In SFBT, the solution need not be matched to the ___ to be effective.

problem

320

The solution-focused brief therapy metaphor contributed by De Shazer.

Providing the family with "skeleton keys," or interventions that work with a variety of locks (complaints).

321

Three kinds of questions often asked during the initial session in the solution-focused approach.

miracle questions

exception-finding questions

scaling questions

322

The two activities around which solution-focused brief therapy is focused

creating well-defined goals

developing solutions based on exceptions

323

The three categories into which SFBT places therapy clients. The client may move among these categories over the course of therapy.

visitors

complainants

customers

324

In SFBT, the ___ client may be there at someone else’s suggestion or demand and is not really engaged in the process. Therapist may respond politely but offer no task or seek no change.

visitor

325

In SFBT, the ___ client is willing to discuss the problem but not willing to work on solutions. Therapist is accepting and may suggest tasks directed at noticing exceptions to the pattern complaint about in the partner.

complainant

326

In SFBT, the ___ client describes their complaints and is prepared to take action to construct a solution. Therapist may be more direct in guiding the client toward solutions.

customer

327

Solution-focused therapists aim at initiating new behavior patterns by offering generic ______ (“Do something different”; “Pay attention to what you do when you overcome the urge to overeat”), implying the client can change while focusing on the future triumphant moment when success is achieved.

formula tasks

328

The 2 leading figures of solution-oriented possibility therapy.

O'Hanlon and Weiner-Davis

329

In ____ therapy, clients are experts in their own feelings and perceptions and identify their own goals. The therapist is the expert at creating a collaborative dialogue and doesn't impose any single "correct" way for the family to live.

solution-oriented possibility therapy

330

In solution-oriented possibility therapy, the therapist's role is to help clients use their inherent skills to find solutions not previously considered or to remind them of what they have done in the past that worked under similar circumstances, creating positive ____.

self-fulfilling prophecies

331

___ is an acronym for a recent model integrating solution-oriented and strengths therapy into therapeutic themes

STRENGTH

332

The 3 key figures of the collaborative approach.

Anderson, Goolishian, and Hoffman

333

In the ____ approach to therapy, therapists are conversational partners who accent issues being linguistically constructed in the here and now. Therapist and client create meaning with one another as they discuss a problem.

collaborative

334

For the ____ therapist, problems are stories people have agreed to tell themselves. Validity is less important than the social utility stories play in explaining the person’s life.

collaborative

335

The collaborative approach to family therapy departs from family systems theory in its assumption that the ___ determines the ____ and not vice versa.

problem; family system

336

In the ____ approach, a “two-way mirror” has replaced the more traditional “one-way mirror” so that professionals and families reverse roles and observe one another openly, offering perspectives on the family’s issues.

reflecting team

337

The leading figure of the reflecting team approach.

Andersen

338

The four clusters of the life narrative.

the core narrated self

life predictions and expectations

life events and actors

opportunities for meaning making and growth

339

____ theory asserts that to achieve change, people need to consider alternate ways of examining the values, assumptions, and meanings of their lives and see how existing stories dominate their views of themselves and their problems—rewrite their future story lines and actively change or reshape their lives.

Narrative

340

____ therapy involves respectful, nonblaming conversations in which clients are the experts in their own lives and assumed to have the skills and competencies needed to construct more positive stories about themselves.

Narrative

341

Narrative therapy emerged from ___ and ___. ____ thought rejects the notion that phenomena can be broken down to their elements.

poststructuralism and deconstruction; Poststructural

342

Early in narrative therapy, clients tell stories about themselves that are problem-filled and based on ____ that have been imposed on them by authority figures and incorporated into the person’s self-definition.

thin descriptions

343

___ are elaborately presented and multistoried and not simply labeled by others; they involve the views of the person being discussed and are usually interwoven with the lives of others.

Thick descriptions

344

Narrative therapists facilitate ___ to thicken and enrich the description of their lives and relationships. They don’t help clients replace one story with another but help them view their lives as ___.

reauthoring conversations; multistoried

345

Narrative therapists believe that people arrange their experiences into a coherent account, or ___, which gives the person a sense of continuity and meaning and becomes the basis for interpreting subsequent experiences.

self-narrative

346

___ underlie, influence, and shape personal narratives, providing ___ specifying the customary or preferred ways of behaving within that culture.

Cultural narratives; dominant narratives

347

The narrative therapist is ___—influential but not at the center of what transpires therapeutically.

decentered

348

Because many clients internalize problems (blaming/labeling selves), ___ are used to help them place the problem outside themselves and attach new meanings to their experiences—helping them recognize that they and the problem are not the same.

externalizing conversations

349

The ___ process has great appeal for families who see their ability to rid the symptomatic person of the problem as a reflection of themselves as failures or who previously placed blame for the problem on one person.

Externalizing

350

Narrative therapy uses questions like an investigative journalist to explore the ___ and ___ of the problem. Questioning typically is directed at what the person is experiencing and how the problem is being experienced.

influence and operations

351

Narrative therapists believe families with problems typically offer ___ stories, pessimistic and self-defeating narratives about themselves, reflecting their frustration, despair, and powerlessness.

problem-saturated

352

Narrative therapists help families identify previously ___ stories and ____ outcomes involving success or alternative views by locating the “facts” that contradict earlier self-descriptions.

subjugated; unique

353

The _____ helps authenticate clients’ preferred claims about themselves and thicken alternative stories by having them tell or perform their story before a nonjudgmental audience comprising either a ____ or ____.

definitional ceremony; reflecting team; outside witnesses

354

A definitional ceremony may include ____, in which witnesses may comment on how the conversation between therapist and family affected their thinking about their own lives.

decentered sharing

355

Narrative therapists often use ____ sent to clients in therapeutic ways, enabling the therapist to extend conversations while encouraging family members to record or map out their own individualized view of the sequences of events in their lives.

letters

356

___ are based on the idea that people who have experienced certain problems have the experience and knowledge about the problems to help one another by sharing their experiences with each other.

Supportive leagues