Wildlife Damage Test #1 (Philosophy)
What does the term "wild" mean?
Behavior and movement not controlled
What does the phrase "wild animal" refer to?
A free-ranging animal.
What does the term "wildlife" mean?
Free-ranging vertebrates other than fish.
Not all ____-_________ _________ are conventionally
What free ranging animals are not considered wildlife?
Invertebrates and fish.
What is the definition of wildlife management?
The act of influencing or modifying the wildlife resource to meet human needs, desires, and goals.
What is wildlife usually used as?
What is the definition of a resource?
Goods and services in the environment that provides an overall benefit to people.
What is the philosophy of wildlife management and who came up with it?
The "Land Ethic" by Aldo Leopold.
Who was Aldo Leopold?
Founder of science of wildlife management, ideas of environmental ethics and wilderness
What does the "Land Ethic" state?
- humans are members of ecosystems
- all aspects of ecosystems are important
- no aspects of ecosystems should be discarded
What is the definition of conservation according to the "Land Ethic"?
"A state of harmony between men and land."
What was Leopold's perspective and what was it in stark contrast to?
Ecological perspective that was in contrast to the prevailing anthropocentric utilitarian view of the day.
What remains the prevailing philosophy and ethic within the field of wildlife management?
Aldo Leopold's "Land Ethic".
What debate did Conover suggest was happening within wildlife management?
There is a debate on whether we should manage wildlife for the benefit of wildlife resource itself or for benefit of humans.
Who did Conover site in regards to this debate?
Leopold and Krauthammer
What did Leopold NOT say regarding this debate?
Leopold did not say that management should be to benefit only the wildlife resource.
What was Charles Krauthammer's perspective called?
What is Charles Krauthammer considered?
A new voice for the old anthropocentric utilitarian view.
What maxim did Charles Krauthammer support?
What does Protragoras' Maxim state?
“Man is measure of all things”
– Humans are masters of nature; nature is here to serve man
Charles Krauthammer said that we must distinguish between environmental luxuries and environmental necessities. What is an environmental necessity?
Ecological change that directly effects human health & safety.
What does Conover's philosophy combine?
Aspects of Leopold and Krauthammer.
What was Leopold's aspect that Conover used?
Society needs environmental ethic that prevents degradation.
What was Krauthammer's aspect that Conover used?
Focus of environmental protection should be to protect ourselves and children.
What were the two tenants that Conover came up with?
TENANT #1: We borrow natural resources from our children (not inherit from our parents)
TENANT #2: We manage wildlife resources to increase its value.
What is the goal of Wildlife Management?
To increase net value of wildlife resources while avoiding irrevocable loss of any part of the resources.
What were the different philosophies concerning the goal of wildlife management?
- Romantic-transcendental Conservation Ethic
- Feduciary Responsibility
What did the Utilitarian philosophy encompass?
Manage for man.
What did the Romantic-transcendental Conservation Ethic philosophy encompass?
Manage for the resource.
What did the Feduciary Responsibility philosophy encompass?
Lies between managing for man and managing for resources.
The positive value of wildlife - the negative value of wildlife=?
The net value of wildlife.
What are some positive values of wildlife?
What are some negative values of wildlife?
– Human health and safety
What is the primary effort of traditional wildlife management?
To increase positive values of wildlife.
What is the primary effort of wildlife damage management?
To decrease negative values.
What is the definition of wildlife damage management?
The science of how to resolve human-wildlife conflicts.
What is defined as human-wildlife conflict?
Whenever actions of humans or wildlife have a negative impact on the other.
What is the goal of wildlife damage management?
Create an ideal world where humans and wildlife can coexist without either having an adverse impact upon the other.
What is a solution to wildlife doing the damage?
Remove the animal causing the problem or change the animal’s behavior.
What is a solution if an object is being damaged?
Modify the object to reduce its vulnerability.
What is a solution if a person is being adversely affected?
Change human behavior to tolerate the damage.