Anatomy and Physiology 2 Wiley Chapter 20 Flashcards


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1

Which of the following terms identifies the anatomical region found between the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column and from the first rib to the diaphragm?

Mediastinum

2

The membrane that surrounds and protects the heart is called the

pericardium

3

the apex of the heart is normally pointed

to the left of the midline

4

Trauma to the pericardium associated with bleeding into the pericardial cavity might cause

cardiac tamponade

5

Which of the following is used to reduce friction between the layers of membranes surrounding the heart?

pericardial fluid

6

The visceral layer of the serous pericardium is also considered to be the

epicardium

7

Which layer of the heart wall consists of cardiac muscle tissue?

myocardium

8

A patient presents with a fever, heart murmur, irregular heartbeat, fatigue, loss of appetite and night sweats. As a physician, your diagnosis would be that of endocarditis typically caused by

a bacterial infection

9

Cardiac tamponade may develop following a case of

pericarditis

10

pectinate muscles extend from the arterial internal wall into the pouch-like structures that increase the total filling capacity of the atrium. These structures are the-

auricles

11

Identify the groove found on the surface of the heart that marks the boundary between the right and left ventricles.

anterior interventricular sulcus

12

Identify the muscular ridges that are found on the anterior wall of the right atrium and extend into the auricles.

pectinate muscles

13

Through which structure does blood pass from the right atrium to the right ventricle?

Tricuspid valve

14

What type of tissue compromises the valves of the heart?

Dense connective tissue

15

Blood leaving the left ventricle passes through which of the following structures?

Aortic semilunar valve

16

Identify the structure found in a fetus that allows blood to flow directly from the pulmonary trunk into the aorta.

Ductus arteriosus

17

Contraction of the ventricles of the heart leads to blood moving directly

into arteries

18

Contraction of the atria of the heart leads to blood moving directly

through atrioventricular valves

19

Which valve below prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle?

pulmonary semilunar valve

20

Which of the following chambers of the heart contain deoxygenated blood?

right atrium and right ventricle

21

Which of the following blood vessels is used to distribute oxygenated blood to the myocardium?

coronary artery

22

Cardiac muscle fibers are electrically connected to neighboring fibers by

gap junctions

23

Which of the following types of muscle contains the largest number of mitochondria per cell?

cardiac muscle

24

Which network of specialized cardiac muscle fibers provides a path for each cycle of cardiac excitation to progress through the heart?

cardiac conduction system

25

Which of the following correctly lists the sequence of structures that a cardiac action potential follows in order to excite normal contraction of the heart?

SA node, AV node, Bundle of His, Purkinje fibers

26

The second heart sound (dupp) closely follows which of the events listed below?

semilunar valves closing

27

Which structure in the heart initiates action potentials that stimulate contraction of the heart at a constant rate of about 100 beats per minute?

Sinoartial (SA) node

28

Stimulation of which nerve reduces heart rate?

vagus nerve

29

Which of the following would lead to a decreased heart rate?

increased potassium levels in plasma

30

An increase in the carbon dioxide levels in the blood leads to a change in the chemical composition of the blood. This input would be received by which part of the brain that regulates heart rate.

Medulla oblongata

31

Which wave in an electrocardiogram represents repolarization of the ventricles?

T wave

32

Which of the following selections lists conditions that would lead to increased stroke volume?

increased preload, decreased afterload, increased contractility

33

Which of the following electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG) waves represents atrial depolarization?

P wave

34

Prior to physical activity, the heart rate may climb. This anticipatory increase is caused by nerve impulses traveling to the cardiovascular center of the medulla oblongata that originate in the

limbic system

35

The formula for calculating cardiac output (CO) is

heart rate multiplied by stroke volume

36

Positive inotropic agents often promote inflow of which cation to increase contractility of the heart?

calcium

37
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In the diagram, where is the left auricle of the left atrium?

C) G

38
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In the diagram, which labeled structure prevents blood flow from the right ventricle back into the right atrium?

B

39
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In the diagram, which labeled structure is the pulmonary semilunar valve?

D) A

40
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In the diagram, which labeled structures are atrioventricular valves?

D) B and D

41
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Which phases of a heartbeat shown in the diagram involve depolarization of any of the heart's four chambers?

1 and 3

42
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Which of the labeled diagrams shows coarctation of the aorta?

A

43
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Which of the labeled diagrams shows an atrial septal defect?

C

44
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Which of the labeled steps in the diagram represents formation of the primitive heart tube?

C

45
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Which of the labeled steps in the diagram represents formation of the endocardial tubes?

B

46

Which week of fetal development might be considered the stage of development of the heart with the chambers as they will be oriented for the rest of the individual's life?

fourth

47
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Which labeled structure shown in the diagram is a remnant of fetal circulation that is not directly involved in adult circulation?

D

48
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Which labeled blood vessel in the diagram is an artery carrying deoxygenated blood?

D) E

49
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Which labeled blood vessel shown in the diagram is the left common carotid artery?

A

50
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Which labeled structure shown in the diagram is a pouch-like extension that served to slightly increase the capacity of an atrium?

C) G

51
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Which labeled structure in the figure is the ligamentum arteriosum?

D

52
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Which structure in the figure is labeled B?

left subclavian artery

53
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Which structure in the figure is labeled A?

left common carotid artery

54
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Which labeled structure in the figure acts as the natural pacemaker of the heart?

A

55
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Which labeled structure in the figure is the AV node?

B

56

Athletes tend to have higher cardiac reserves because

their hearts operate more efficiently due to training

57
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Which labeled structure in the figure represents the only pathway for conducting action potentials from the atria to the ventricles?

C

58
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Which labeled structure in the figure carries the cardiac action potential directly into the contractile fibers o the ventricular myocardium?

E

59

The difference between a person's maximum cardiac output and resting cardiac output is called the

cardiac reserve

60

What is the function of the foramen ovale during fetal life?

Allowing blood to flow directly from the right atrium into the left atrium

61

Isovolumetric contraction is the phase of the cardiac cycle in which

ventricular pressure increases and ventricular volume remains the same

62

Which of the following chambers of the heart is surrounded by the thicket layer of myocardium?

left ventricle

63

Which of the following is a corrective cardiac procedure in which a large piece of a patient's own latissimus dorsi muscle is wrapped around the heart and stimulated by an implanted pacemaker to assist the pumping action of a damaged heart?

cardiomyoplasty

64

The coronary sulcus marks the external boundary between the ___ and the ___.

superior atria/inferior ventricles

65

In comparison to skeletal muscle fibers, the contractile fibers of the heart rate depolarized for ___ period of time.

a longer

66

The volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each minute is called the

cardiac output

67

Which term refers to the time period of time during a cardiac cycle when contraction of a chamber occurs and pressures within the chamber rises?

systole

68

The period of atrial systole lasts about ___ while the period of ventricular systole lasts approximately ___.

0.1 sec/0.3 sec

69

During which of the following periods does the largest volume of blood enter the arteries?

ventricular systole

70

Two hormones that increase heart rate are ___ and ___.

thyroid hormone/epinephrine

71

Cardiac output is the volume of blood ejected from the ___ ventricle into the ___ each minute.

left or right/aorta or pulmonary trunk

72

Heart murmurs are often heard in individuals with abnormalities in the ___ of the heart.

valves

73

In comparison to a sedentary individual, a well-trained athlete will usually have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT-

a higher resting cardiac output

74

During heart transplants, the ___ nerves are severed resulting in a faster resting heart rate (approximately 100 beats per minute) after the transplant.

Vagus