Anatomy and Physiology 2 Wiley Chapter 20 Flashcards
Which of the following terms identifies the anatomical region found between the lungs that extends from the sternum to the vertebral column and from the first rib to the diaphragm?
The membrane that surrounds and protects the heart is called the
the apex of the heart is normally pointed
to the left of the midline
Trauma to the pericardium associated with bleeding into the pericardial cavity might cause
Which of the following is used to reduce friction between the layers of membranes surrounding the heart?
The visceral layer of the serous pericardium is also considered to be the
Which layer of the heart wall consists of cardiac muscle tissue?
A patient presents with a fever, heart murmur, irregular heartbeat, fatigue, loss of appetite and night sweats. As a physician, your diagnosis would be that of endocarditis typically caused by
a bacterial infection
Cardiac tamponade may develop following a case of
pectinate muscles extend from the arterial internal wall into the pouch-like structures that increase the total filling capacity of the atrium. These structures are the-
Identify the groove found on the surface of the heart that marks the boundary between the right and left ventricles.
anterior interventricular sulcus
Identify the muscular ridges that are found on the anterior wall of the right atrium and extend into the auricles.
Through which structure does blood pass from the right atrium to the right ventricle?
What type of tissue compromises the valves of the heart?
Dense connective tissue
Blood leaving the left ventricle passes through which of the following structures?
Aortic semilunar valve
Identify the structure found in a fetus that allows blood to flow directly from the pulmonary trunk into the aorta.
Contraction of the ventricles of the heart leads to blood moving directly
Contraction of the atria of the heart leads to blood moving directly
through atrioventricular valves
Which valve below prevents blood from flowing back into the right ventricle?
pulmonary semilunar valve
Which of the following chambers of the heart contain deoxygenated blood?
right atrium and right ventricle
Which of the following blood vessels is used to distribute oxygenated blood to the myocardium?
Cardiac muscle fibers are electrically connected to neighboring fibers by
Which of the following types of muscle contains the largest number of mitochondria per cell?
Which network of specialized cardiac muscle fibers provides a path for each cycle of cardiac excitation to progress through the heart?
cardiac conduction system
Which of the following correctly lists the sequence of structures that a cardiac action potential follows in order to excite normal contraction of the heart?
SA node, AV node, Bundle of His, Purkinje fibers
The second heart sound (dupp) closely follows which of the events listed below?
semilunar valves closing
Which structure in the heart initiates action potentials that stimulate contraction of the heart at a constant rate of about 100 beats per minute?
Sinoartial (SA) node
Stimulation of which nerve reduces heart rate?
Which of the following would lead to a decreased heart rate?
increased potassium levels in plasma
An increase in the carbon dioxide levels in the blood leads to a change in the chemical composition of the blood. This input would be received by which part of the brain that regulates heart rate.
Which wave in an electrocardiogram represents repolarization of the ventricles?
Which of the following selections lists conditions that would lead to increased stroke volume?
increased preload, decreased afterload, increased contractility
Which of the following electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG) waves represents atrial depolarization?
Prior to physical activity, the heart rate may climb. This anticipatory increase is caused by nerve impulses traveling to the cardiovascular center of the medulla oblongata that originate in the
The formula for calculating cardiac output (CO) is
heart rate multiplied by stroke volume
Positive inotropic agents often promote inflow of which cation to increase contractility of the heart?
In the diagram, where is the left auricle of the left atrium?
In the diagram, which labeled structure prevents blood flow from the right ventricle back into the right atrium?
In the diagram, which labeled structure is the pulmonary semilunar valve?
In the diagram, which labeled structures are atrioventricular valves?
D) B and D
Which phases of a heartbeat shown in the diagram involve depolarization of any of the heart's four chambers?
1 and 3
Which of the labeled diagrams shows coarctation of the aorta?
Which of the labeled diagrams shows an atrial septal defect?
Which of the labeled steps in the diagram represents formation of the primitive heart tube?
Which of the labeled steps in the diagram represents formation of the endocardial tubes?
Which week of fetal development might be considered the stage of development of the heart with the chambers as they will be oriented for the rest of the individual's life?
Which labeled structure shown in the diagram is a remnant of fetal circulation that is not directly involved in adult circulation?
Which labeled blood vessel in the diagram is an artery carrying deoxygenated blood?
Which labeled blood vessel shown in the diagram is the left common carotid artery?
Which labeled structure shown in the diagram is a pouch-like extension that served to slightly increase the capacity of an atrium?
Which labeled structure in the figure is the ligamentum arteriosum?
Which structure in the figure is labeled B?
left subclavian artery
Which structure in the figure is labeled A?
left common carotid artery
Which labeled structure in the figure acts as the natural pacemaker of the heart?
Which labeled structure in the figure is the AV node?
Athletes tend to have higher cardiac reserves because
their hearts operate more efficiently due to training
Which labeled structure in the figure represents the only pathway for conducting action potentials from the atria to the ventricles?
Which labeled structure in the figure carries the cardiac action potential directly into the contractile fibers o the ventricular myocardium?
The difference between a person's maximum cardiac output and resting cardiac output is called the
What is the function of the foramen ovale during fetal life?
Allowing blood to flow directly from the right atrium into the left atrium
Isovolumetric contraction is the phase of the cardiac cycle in which
ventricular pressure increases and ventricular volume remains the same
Which of the following chambers of the heart is surrounded by the thicket layer of myocardium?
Which of the following is a corrective cardiac procedure in which a large piece of a patient's own latissimus dorsi muscle is wrapped around the heart and stimulated by an implanted pacemaker to assist the pumping action of a damaged heart?
The coronary sulcus marks the external boundary between the ___ and the ___.
superior atria/inferior ventricles
In comparison to skeletal muscle fibers, the contractile fibers of the heart rate depolarized for ___ period of time.
The volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle into the aorta each minute is called the
Which term refers to the time period of time during a cardiac cycle when contraction of a chamber occurs and pressures within the chamber rises?
The period of atrial systole lasts about ___ while the period of ventricular systole lasts approximately ___.
0.1 sec/0.3 sec
During which of the following periods does the largest volume of blood enter the arteries?
Two hormones that increase heart rate are ___ and ___.
Cardiac output is the volume of blood ejected from the ___ ventricle into the ___ each minute.
left or right/aorta or pulmonary trunk
Heart murmurs are often heard in individuals with abnormalities in the ___ of the heart.
In comparison to a sedentary individual, a well-trained athlete will usually have all of the following characteristics EXCEPT-
a higher resting cardiac output
During heart transplants, the ___ nerves are severed resulting in a faster resting heart rate (approximately 100 beats per minute) after the transplant.