Nervous system and PNS Flashcards


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1

The _________ division tends to prepare the body for action

Sympathetic

2

The _________ division carries signals to smooth muscles in the intestines.

Visceral motor

3

The term "nerve" or nerve fiber refers to

A bundle of axons

4

Which glial cell wraps segments of several axons in the Central Nervous System?

Oligodendrocytes

5

Nerve impulse conduction speed of a nerve fiber is fastest in

Large diameter myelinated axons

6

Local potentials form on the _______ of a neuron

Dendrites

7

What ion has the greatest effect on the resting membrane potential of a neuron

Potassium

8

Local potentials are ___________ whereas action potentials are ____________.

Graded; all-or-none

9

During absolute refractory period no stimulus of any strength will cause another action potential

True

10

Opening ________ gates produces a _________.

Chloride; IPSP

11

Motor commands are carried by __________ from the brain along the spinal cord.

Decending tracts

12

Which of the following types of receptor senses pain?

Nociceptor

13

Which of the following branches of a spinal nerve has the Soma's of only sensory neurons?

Posterior (dorsal) root

14

An intensely painful stimulus is distinguished from a mildly painful one by

A higher frequency of action potentials initiated

15

Neurons move material towards the cell body in __________ transport

Retrograde

16

Edendymal cells line the inner cavities of the CNS.

True

17

In the brain, neurons are more abundant than neuroglia.

False

18

Norepinephrine is a bioamine

True

19

Which of these channels responds to changes in membrane potential?

Voltage-gated channel

20

The myelin sheath is formed by

Cells

21

In order for a peripheral nerve fiber to regenerate it must have

The soma and at least some neurilemma intact

22

Most local potentials happen at the

Dendrites

23

Opening of sodium gates typically leads to

Depolarization of the plasma membrane

24

Local potentials are _________, meaning they vary in magnitude according to the strength of the stimulus.

Graded

25

When the voltage of a plasma membrane shifts from +35mV towards 0mV, we say the cell is

Repolarizing

26

During the absolute refractory period

No stimulus of any strength will trigger a new action potential

27

A cholinergic synapse employs _________ as it's neurotransmitter

Acetylcholine

28

The type of circuit in a neruonal pool which oscillates rhythmically in tasks like walking is termed a

Reverberating circuit

29

A ganglion is a swelling along a nerve containing cell bodies of peripheral neurons.

True

30

The tough fibrous sheath which encloses all the fascicles to form the nerve

Epineurium

31

A disorder of the Central Nervous System would involve

Brain and spinal cord

32

The neuronal voltage considered to be "threshold" before graded potentials can cause an action potential is

-55mV

33

Which of the following are effectors?

Glands

34

What is another name for the autonomic nervous system?

Visceral motor division

35

Nerves are _______ of the nervous system

Organs

36

Some _________ neurons are specialized to detect stimuli, whereas _________ neurons send signals to the effectors of the nervous system.

Afferent; efferent

37

About 90% of the neurons in the nervous system are _________ neurons

Association

38

What is the most common type of neuron?

Multipolar

39

Most metabolic and regulatory functions in a neuron happen where?

Soma

40

Which glial cell is found wrapped around nerve fibers in the PNS?

Schwann cells

41

In which part of a neuron is the postsynaptic membrane usually found?

Dendrite

42

What is the primary site on a neuron for receiving signals from other neurons?

The dendrites

43

Which cells form myelin in the spinal cord?

Oligodendrocytes

44

A myelin sheath is composed primarily of

Lipids

45

In a neuron, the opening of sodium gates typically leads to

Depolarization of the plasma membrane

46

Which of the following will cause the plasma membrane to hyperpolarize when at it's RMP

An inflow of chloride

47

While a neuron membrane is depolarizing it's

Sodium gates are fully open

48

A neuron receives a stimulus. Which of the following events happens next?

A local potential develops

49

In an action potential, which event directly follows repolarization?

Hyperpolarization of the membrane

50

What occurs during hyperpolarization of a neuron membrane!

Potassium ions are leaving the cell

51

A traveling wave of excitation is known as a

Nerve signal

52

What would be the best explanation for why myelinated fibers conduct signals faster than unmyelinated fibers?

Diffusion of ions along the axoplasm is faster.

53

A cholinergic synapse uses ________ as it's neurotransmitter

Acetylcholine

54

What is the most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain?

Y-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

55

Which of these happens first in a cholinergic synapse transmission?

The synaptic vesicles releases acetylcholine

56

Which happens first in an adrenergic synaptic transmission?

G protein dissociates from the NE receptor.

57

Some antidepressant drugs act by inhibiting monoamine oxidase (MAO). What is the function of this enzyme?

It breaks down monoamines

58

Which neurotransmitter excited skeletal muscles and inhibits cardiac muscles?

Acetylcholine

59

Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) are associated with which of the following?

Hyperpolarization of the cell membrane

60

Which is an example of an EPSP in a typical neuron?

A voltage change from -70mV to -69.5mV

61

A neuron can receive thousands of EPSPs from different neurons, and responds by triggering or not triggering an action potential. This addition and response to the net effect of postsynaptic potentials is called

Spatial summation

62

What is the opposite of presynaptic inhibition?

Facilitation

63

What type of neural circuit is best for producing a prolonged output?

A reverberating circuit

64

Where does saltatory conduction occur?

From node to node in myelinated fibers