Pharmacology: ch 15, 16, 35, 36 and some 46 (also some main topics throughout the whole term) Flashcards


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1

common cold etiology and affect

rhino virus

nasopharayngeal tract

2

acute rhinitis

inflammation of nasal mucous membranes

3

allergic rhinitis?

hay fever

pollen

foreign substance

4

contagious period of a cold

1-4 days before onset of symptoms

first 3 days of cold

5

type of transmission of a cold

droplets

touching contaminated surfaces and then touching face

6

antihistamines first generation cause?

lots of drowsiness and anticholinergic effects

7

how are antihistamines divided?

first and second generations

8

action of antihistamines

competes with histamine for receptor sites and prevents a histamine responce

blocks H1 receptor sites. nasopharyngeal secretions decreased

9

other name for diphenhydramine

Benadryl

10

do second generation antihistamines cause drowsiness?

they cause less drowsiness

11

use of diphenhydramine

allergic rhinitis, pruritus, urticaria

the common cold, sneezing and coughing

can prevent motion sickness

12

what is pruritis?

Itching

13

what ia urticaria

Hives

14

diphenhydramine contraindications/cautions

narrow-angle glacoma

urinary retention

SEVERE LIVER DISEASE

15

diphenhydramine interactions

increases CNS depression with alcohol and other CNS depressants

16

what do you give diphenhydramine with to decrease gastric distress

food

17

how can you help the mouth dryness with diphenhydramine

sugarless candies, gum or ice chips

18

is diphenhydramine a first or second generation antihistamine

first generation

19

other name for loratidine

Claritin

20

what generation of antihistamine is loratidine

second generation

21

what is loratidine often called

non-sedating antihistamine

22

etiology of nasal congestion

dilation of blood vessels and swelling of nasal cavoty

23

what do nasal decongestants do?

stimulate alpha-adrenergic receptors

produces nasal vascular constriction

shrinks nasal mucus membranes

reduces nasal secretions

24

what is coryza

an acute inflammatory contagious disease involving the upper respiratory tract

25

nasal decongestant use?

allergic rhinitis, hay fever, acute coryza

26

nasal decongestant interactions

beta blockers, MAOIS and caffine (there is a lot of others too)

27

phenylephrine brand names

Sudafed PE

Neo-synephrine

28

phenylephrine used for

nasal decongestion

29

pseudophedrine also known as

sudafed

30

use for pseudophedrine

rhinitis, congestion, common cold

31

things pseudophedrine can cause

tachycardia, restlessness, insomnia, palpitations

HTN, and dysrhythmias

32

phenylephrine may cause ?

irritation, excitability, blurred vision, nausea, dyspnea, HTN and headaches

33

fluticasone action

antiinflammatory

decreased rhinorrhea, sneezing, and congestion

34

side effects of flucasone

dizziness and blurred vision

hoarseness, nausea, vomiting

35

expectorants action

loosens bronchial secretions by reducing surface tension of secretion

allows elimination by coughing

36

use of expectorants

common cold

37

side effects of expectorants

drowsiness, dizziness, headache and nausea

38

Guaifenesin is an example of a

expectorant

39

guaifenesin is

commonly added in cough and cold preperations

may cause drowsiness, N/V, dizziness and diarrhea

40

what can guaifenesin be combined with?

codeine

41

antitussives actions

acts on the cough control center in the medulla to suppress the cough reflex

42

types of antitussives

non-opioid

opioid

combination preparations

43

dextromethorphan

cough suppressant (antitussive)

44

dextromethorphan can have?

sedative, dissociative or stimulant properties and can be abused

45

what type of syndrome can dextromethorphan contribute to?

serotonin syndrome

46

side effects of dextromethorphan

dizziness, drowsiness, fatigue and confusion

47

serotonin syndrome symptoms

confusion, agitation or restlessness, dilated pupils, headache, changes in BP or Temp, N/V, Tachycardia, tremor, loss of muscle control, goosebumps, heavy diaphoresis

48

other word for goosebumps

piloerection

49

sinusitis

inflammation of mucous membranes of sinuses

50

treatment of sinusitis

decongestant, acetaminophen, fluids, rest and antibiotics

51

acute pharyngitis

inflammation of throat

52

treatment of acute pharyngitis

saline gargles, lozenges, increased fluid intake, acetaminophen

53

Asthma

inflammatory disease of the airway walls associated with a varying amount of airway obstruction triggered by stimuli

54

bronchial asthma

characterized by bronchospasms

resistant to airflow caused by obstruction

55

asthma/ bronchial asthma is catogorized under

used to be COPD but now kind of on its own

56

chronic bronchitis

progressive lung disease caused by smoking or lung infections and excessive secretions caused by airway obstructions

57

emphysema

progressive lung disease caused by cigarette smoking. atmospheric contaminants, lack of alpja 1 antitrypsin protein that inhibits proteolytic enzymes that destroy alveoli

58

sympathomimetics

open narrowed airways and bronchodialators

alpha and beta 2 adrenergic antagonists

59

glucocorticoids

decrease agonists

60

leukotriene modifiers

anti-inflammatory agent to suppress release of histamine from mast cells

61

inhaled anticholinergics

block muscarinic receptors of bronchi= bronchodialation

62

antibiotics

treat bacterial infections

63

act of sympathetic system

dilates pupils

inhibits salivation

relaxes bronchi

accelerates HR

inhibits peristalsis and secretion

stimulates glucose production and release

secretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline

inhibits bladder contraction

stimulates orgasm

64

act of parasympathetic system

constricts pupils

stimulates saliva flow

constricts bronchi

slows HR

stimulates peristalsis and secretion

stimulates bile release

contracts bladder

65

other name for epinephrine

Adrenalin

66

adrenaline is

non selective

67

action of epinephrine

alpha 1 increases the blood pressure

beta 1 increases HR

beta 2 promotes bronchodialation

68

expected pharmacological action of adrenalin

increases cAMP in lung tissue leads to bronchodilation and increases airway patency

elevates BP

69

use of adrenalin

acute bronchospasm due to anaphylaxis caused by allergic reaction

first line of defense in acute asthma attack or anaphylaxis

70

what is epi classified as?

alpha & beta adrenergic

71

adverse reactions and side effects of epi

cardiac dysrhythmias

tachycardia

palpitations

HTN

dizziness

headache

sweating

insomnia

restlessness

hyperglycemia

72

other names for Albuterol

ventolin / proventil

73

salmeterol other name

Advair

74

Inhaled albuterol is

short acting

75

my mouth albuterol is

long acting

76

PO means

by mouth

77

albuterol use

prevention of exercise induced asthma, inhaled form prevention of asthma, treat bronchospasms and long term treatment of asthma

78

salmeterol use

long term control of asthma

79

complications of beta2 adrenergic

tachycardia

tremors

hyperglycemia

80

contraindications with beta2 adrenergic

milk protein hypersensitivity

tachydysrhythmia

caution with diabetic, HTN, hyperthyroidism and seizures

81

interactions with beta 2 adrenergic

beta blockers (concurrent use can negate both med actions)

MAIOs and TCA (increase risk of tachycardia and angina)

82

severe paradoxical airway resistance

bronchoconstriction

with repeated, excessive use of sympathomimetic oral inhalation

frequent dosing can cause tremors, nervousness and increased HR