Medical Terminology Ch. 4 & 5

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 7 years ago by kategre18
1,183 views
updated 7 years ago by kategre18
Grade levels:
College: First year, College: Second year, College: Third year, College: Fourth year
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Diagnosis

the identification of a disease or condition by a scientific evaluation of physical signs, symptoms, history, tests, and procedures

2

Prognosis

the predicted outcome of a disease

3

Acute

having a short and relatively severe course

4

Chronic

the disease exists over a long period of time

5

Signs

objective evidence of an illness
(fever, rash, or evidence established by radiologic or laboratory testing)

6

Symptoms

subjective evidence
(pain)

7

Tests:

laboratory, clinical, imaging, specimen

8

Vital Signs

pulse rate, respiration rate, and body temp.

9

Pulse

the rhythmic expansion of an artery that occurs as the heart beats

10

Respiration Rate

the number of breaths per minute

11

Tympanic Thermometer

a specially designed probe tip that is placed at the external opening of the ear canal

12

Blood Pressure

the pressure exerted by the circulating volume of blood on the walls of the arteries and veins and on the chambers of the heart

13

Systolic Pressure

the higher reading of blood pressure

14

Diastolic Pressure

the lower reading of blood pressure

15

Inspection

the examiner uses the eyes and ears to observe and listen to the patient

16

Palpation

the examiner feels the texture, size, consistency, and location of certain body parts with the hands

17

Percussion

the examiner taps the body with the fingertips or fist to evaluate the size, boarders, and consistency of internal organs and to determine the amount of fluid in a body cavity

18

Auscultation

the examiner listens for sounds with a stethoscope to evaluate the heart, blood vessels, lungs, intestines, or other organs

19

Endoscope

an illuminated instrument for the visualization of the interior of a body cavity or organ

20

Endoscopy

visual inspection of the body by means of an endoscope

21

Catheter

a hollow flexible tube that can be inserted into a cavity of the body to with draw or instill fluids, perform tests, or visualize a vessel or cavity

22

Cannula

means a hollow flexible tube that is inserted into vessels or cavities (latin term)

23

Invasive Procedure

requires entry of a body cavity or interruption of normal body function

24

Computed Radiography

the image data are digitized and immediately displayed on a monitor or recored on film

25

Radiography

process of recording diagnostic imaging with x-rays providing film images of internal structures

26

Radiograph

an x-ray image

27

Radiopaque

substances that do not permit the passage of x-rays

28

Radiolucent

substances that readily permit the passage of x-rays

29

Magnetic Resonance Imaging
M.R.I.

creates images of internal structures based on the magnetic properties of chemical elements within the body and uses a powerful magnetic field and radio pluses

30

Sonography

the process of imaging deep structures of the body by sending and receiving high frequency sound waves that are reflected back as echoes from the tissue interfaces

31

Contrast Imaging

the use of radiopaque materials to make internal organs visible on x-ray images

32

Fluoroscopy

continuous imaging of the motion of internal structures and immediate serial images

33

Nuclear Scans

administering radiopharaceuticals to a patient orally, into the vein, or by having the patient breathe the material in vapor form

34

Radiopharmaceuticals

medical drugs that are radioactive

35

Position Emission Tomography
P.E.T.

combines tomography and radioactive substances to produce enhanced images of select body structures

36

Radiotherapy

the treatment of tumors using radiation to destroy cancer cells

37

Radiation Oncology

AKA radiation therapy

38

Cytotoxic

used in cancer treatments to kill cancer cells ("toxic to cells")

39

Neoplasm

a new growth of tissue (a tumor) that is either benign or malignant

40

Therapeutic

"pertaining to therapy"

41

Analgesic

a drug that relieves pain

42

Narcotic

pertaining to a substance that produces insensibility or stupor

43

Antimicrobials

drugs that destroy or inhibit the growth of microbes

44

Antibiotics

antimicrobial agents that are derived from cultures of a microorganism or produced semi synthetically and used to treat infections

45

Antineoplactic

preventing the development of neoplasms

46

Chemotherapy

treating with chemicals

47

Cryotherapy

treatment using cold temperatures

48

Pharmacotherapy

treatment of diseases with drugs or medicine

49

Thermotherapy

treatment of a disease with heat

50

Epithelial Tissue

covering tissue

51

Connective Tissue

supporting and protective tissue

52

Muscular Tissue

contracting tissue

53

Nervous Tissue

tissue that conducts impulses

54

Dysplasia

abnormal development of tissues

55

Aplasia

lack of development of an organ or tissue

56

Hypoplasia

less severe that aplasia

57

Hyperplasia

abnormal increase in the number of normal cells in tissue

58

Hypertrophy

increase in the size of an organ cause by an increase in the SIZE of the cells rather than the number of cells

59

Anaplasia

change in the structure and orientation of cells characterized by a loss of differentiation and reversal to a more primitive form

60

Homeostasis

the constant internal environment that is naturally maintained by the body

61

Frontal Plane

divides body in to front and back portions

62

Transverse Plane

divides the body into upper and lower portions

63

Sagittal Plane

divides the body into left and right sides

64

Midsagittal Plane

divides the body into two equal halves

65

Telecardiogram

a tracing of the electrical impulses of the heart recorded by a machine far (distant) from the patient

66

Dorsal Cavity

includes cranial and spinal cavities

67

Viscera

large organs contained in the ventral cavity

68

Ventral Cavity

includes thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity

69

Diaphragm

the muscle that divides the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities

70

Peritoneum

lines the abdominopelvic cavity and enfolds the internal organs

71

Adhesion

a sticking together of two structures that would normally be separated

72

Major regions of the body

head, neck, torso, extremities

73

Abdominal Quadrants

used to describe the location of pain or body structures

74

Intracellular

fluids found within the cell

75

Extracellular

fluids found outside the cells

76

Edema

condition that results in the accumulation of fluid in the interstitial compartment

77

Salivary Gland

example of an exocrine gland

78

Thyroid & Adrenal Glands

examples of an endocrine gland

79

Sudoriferous Glands

AKA sweat glands

80

Hematoma

a localized collection of blood, usually clotted, in an organ, tissue, or space, resulting from a break in the wall of a blood vessel

81

Anticoagulant

a substance that delays or prevents blood from clotting

82

Thrombosis

formation of internal blood clots

83

Platelets

small structures in the blood that are important for blood clotting

84

Thrombocytes

AKA blood platelets

85

Thrombocytopenia
(Thrombopenia)

a reduction in the number of blood platelets

86

Anemia

a condition in which the number of red blood cells or the concentration of hemoglobin (or both) is decreased

87

Pallor

paleness

88

Leukopenia
(Leukcytopenia)

an abnormal decrease in the total number of white blood cells

89

Leukocytosis

an abnormal increase in the total number of white blood cells

90

Leukemia

a progressive, malignant disease of blood-forming organs

91

Erythropoietin

a hormone that causes the production of red blood cells

92

Hematopoiesis

formation and development of blood cells

93

Erythropoiesis

the production of red blood cells

94

Erythropenia

an abnormal decrease in the number of red blood cells

95

Susceptibility

being vulnerable to a disease or disorder

96

Resistance

the body's natural ability to counteract microorganisms or toxins

97

Inflammation

a protective response of body tissue that increases circulation to an area after irritation or injury

98

Phagocytosis

ingestion and destruction of microorganisms

99

Interferon

a cell-produced protein that protects the cells from viral infection

100

Complement

a protein that not only promotes inflammation and phagocytosis, but also causes bacterial cells to rupture

101

Antigen

any substance that the body regards as foreign

102

Antibody

a disease-fighting protein produced by the immune system in respond to the presence of a specific antigen

103

Immunization

the process by which resistance to an infectious disease is induced or augmented

104

Vaccination

the administration of antigenic material to induce immunity

105

Immunocompromised

person whose immune system response has been weakened by a disease or immunosuppresive agent

106

Immunosuppressants

radiation and certain drugs that weaken the immune response

107

Immunodeficiency

caused by a defect in the immune system and are characterized by a susceptibility to infections and chronic diseases

108

Hypersensitivity

excessive reaction to an antigen

109

Allergies

conditions in which the body reacts with an exaggerated immune response to common, harmless substances, most of which are found in the environment

110

Anaphlaxis

exaggerated, life-threatening hypersensitivity reactions to a previously encountered antigen

111

Benign

"favorable for recovery"
"not having a tendency to spread"

112

Malignant

tending to grow worse, to spread, and possibly become life threatening

113

Metastasis

spreading from one part of the body to another

114

Metasize

spread to sites away from where they originate