Campbell Biology: Chapter 21: Genomes and Their Evolution Flashcards
What is metagenomics?
sequencing DNA from a group of species from the same ecosystem
An early step in shotgun sequencing is to _____.
break genomic DNA at random sites
Using modern techniques of sequencing by synthesis and the shotgun approach, sequences are assembled into chromosomes by ______.
computer analysis looking for sequence overlaps
Proteomics is defined as the _____.
study of the full protein set encoded by a genome
Bioinformatics can be used to scan for short sequences that specify known mRNAs, called _____.
expressed sequence tags
What is gene annotation in bioinformatics?
finding transcriptional start and stop sites, RNA splice sites, and ESTs in DNA sequences
Bioinformatics includes _____.
- using computer programs to align DNA sequences
- developing computer-based tools for genome analysis
- using mathematical tools to make sense of biological systems
After finding a new medicinal plant, a pharmaceutical company decides to determine if the plant has genes similar to those of other known medicinal plants. To do this, the company annotates the genome of the new plant to _____.
identify genes and determine their functions
If the sequence of a cDNA has matches with DNA sequences in the genome, then this genomic DNA is likely to _____.
code for a protein
Note: cDNA is often used to clone eukaryotic genes in prokaryotes. When scientists want to express a specific protein in a cell that does not normally express that protein (i.e., heterologous expression), they will transfer the cDNA that codes for the protein to the recipient cell.
In what sense are studies by nineteenth-century naturalists and those by early twenty-first- century genomic biologists similar?
Both focused on observing and describing what exists in their realms of investigation.
Which of the following techniques would be most appropriate to test the hypothesis that humans and chimps differ in the expression of a large set of shared genes?
DNA microarray analysis
A DNA microarray is a tool that owes its existence to earlier genomics investigations. What essential contribution of genomics makes microarrays possible?
knowledge of which DNA sequences to synthesize for the array
What can proteomics reveal that genomics cannot?
the set of proteins present within a cell or tissue type
A sequence database such as GenBank could be used to do all of the following:
- Compare cow and human insulin protein sequences.
- Construct a tree to determine the evolutionary relationships between various bird species.
- Search for genes in a fruit fly that are similar to a human gene.
A sequence database such as GenBank cannot:
Compare patterns of gene expression in cancerous and non-cancerous cells.
Current analysis indicates that less than 2% of the human genome codes for proteins. Based on the systems approach employed by the ENCODE project, what percentage of the genome is estimated to contain functional elements (includes functional RNAs and regulatory sequences)?
At least 80%