PT101 lessons 1-10 Flashcards

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1-Name and describe five types of production tasks that Pro Tools can be used for.

Audio - recording audio, stores as digital file

MIDI - records the performance data

Notation/score - writing music through MIDI score editing window

Mixing/ Automation - panning, signal routing, effects, dynamics

Video/ Post Production - can import video


1-What is the frequency range of human hearing?

20 Hz - 20 kHz


1-What does the frequency of a sound wave affect in terms of how we perceive the sound? How is frequency measured?

How high or low a sound is.



1-What does the amplitude of the sound wave affect? How is amplitude measured?

Intensity or loudness of the sound



1-How does the sample rate of a system relate to the frequency of audio it can capture? What is the name of the law that specifies the relationship between sample rate and audio frequency?

Sample rate needs to capture the frequency 2 times

Nyquist theorem


1-How does the bit depth of a system relate to the dynamic range of audio it can capture? How can you estimate the dynamic range of a system?

The more bit depth, the greater the dynamic range

Every bit =6 dB so multiply the bit depth by 6


1-What are some common digital connections available on Pro Tools audio interfaces? What type of connector jack does each use? (See “Recording in Digital Format” on page 15.)

AES/EBU - XLR cables

S/PDIF - RCA and Coaxial


1-Name some audio interfaces that are compatible with standard Pro Tools software. (See “Audio Interface Options” beginning on page 16.)

Windows - Any one with an ASIO driver

Mac - Any one with a Core Audio driver


1-Name some Avid audio interfaces that are compatible with Pro Tools | Ultimate software.

HD MADI, MTRX, MTRX studio, HD Omni, HD I/O

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HD Madi

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MTRX Studio


2-Name some of the folders and files that Pro Tools creates as part of the session hierarchy. Where is the session file (.ptx) stored?


Bounced file

Backup files

MIDI Files



2-What is the WaveCache.wfm file used for? What happens if the WaveCache file gets deleted or goes missing?

Used to store the sessions waveforms.

It will take longer to load


2-Where are audio files stored in the session hierarchy?

Audio files are stored separately in the audio files folder


2-Where are Pro Tools’ MIDI files normally stored?

In the session folder


2-Which components should you turn on first when powering up a Pro Tools system? Which component should you turn on last?

1st - Anything that needs external power

Last - Audio monitoring device


2-What type of processing does the Hardware Buffer Size affect? What type of processing does it not affect?

Affects - Host based processing

Does NOT affect - DSP processing


2-What kinds of commands can be found under the Pro Tools View menu? How does the View menu differ from the Window menu?

Things that affect the display in widows, tracks, and clips

View affects parts of a window; window affects entire windows


2-What kinds of commands can be found under the Pro Tools Options menu? How does the Options menu differ from the Setup menu

Commands that toggle functions on/off

options toggle on and off where setup affects options to hardware and software


2-Which main Pro Tools window displays audio waveforms and can be used to work directly with audio, MIDI, and video files on tracks?

Edit Window


2-Which Pro Tools window provides access to Pan controls and Volume Faders for each track?

Mix Window

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A. Toolbar

B. Track and Clips lists

C. Edit tools

D. Transport controls

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A. Insert Selector

B. Sends Selector

C. Input Selector

D. Output Selector

E. Automation

F. Volume Fader

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A. Transport Controls

B. Counter

C. MIDI controls


3-What icon is used for the Zoomer tool in the Edit window? How can you use this tool to quickly zoom out, filling the Edit window with the longest track in the session?

It is a magnify glass

Double click on the zoomer tool


3-Which Edit tool is represented by a hand icon? What is this tool used for?

The grabber

For arranging or positioning clips


3-Which tool is active when the Trim, Selector, and Grabber icons are all selected (highlighted in blue) in the Edit window toolbar?

The smart tool


3-What are the four Edit modes in Pro Tools? How can you switch between them?

Slip, Shuffle, Grid, and Spot


3-Why should you use caution when editing synchronized material in Shuffle mode? When is Shuffle mode useful?

Because it can cause timing issues

It is useful when editing dialog


3-How does editing a clip in Slip mode affect the timing of other clips on the track?

It does not affect the timing of the other tracks


3-When is it helpful to work in Spot mode? When it is helpful to work in Grid mode?

Spot - When you want to place it in a specific place - Dialog box appears

Grid - When you want it to align to the grid based intervals - helpful when needing precise timing.


3-What are some ways to set the Main Time Scale in Pro Tools?

View > Main Counter

From the Main Time scale pop up menu(down arrow next to main counter)

Click on its name on the ruler


3-What are the two types of Rulers available in Pro Tools? What is the difference between them?

Time Based and Conductor

Time base measures time in various ways. Conductor contains events that map out locations, changes, and characteristics.


3-What are some ways to hide Rulers that you do not need displayed in a session?

View > rulers to unselect

Alt click on ruler name


3-Which Pro Tools windows provide access to MIDI controls, such as Wait for Note, Metronome, and MIDI Merge?

Transport window


3-What is the purpose of the Metronome button in the MIDI Controls area? What kind of track must be added to a session for the Metronome button to work?

To provide an audible beat for your musicians

Need a click track


3-What are the two states or modes available for controlling the current session tempo? How can you switch between these modes?

Tempo map mode and manual tempo mode

Switch by clicking the tempo ruler enable button - When active it is in tempo map mode


3-What is displayed by the Tempo field in the MIDI Controls area? What are some ways to set the session tempo using this field?

The current tempo based on the cursor location

You can enter the tempo manually or tap the tempo by pressing T or using a MIDI controller

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Trimmer Tool

Selector Tool

Grabber Tool

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Smart Tool

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A - Wait for note

B - Metronome

C - MIDI Merge

D - Tempo Ruler


4-What are some actions that can be initiated from the Dashboard?

create a session or project

create a session or project from template

open a session of project


4-What is the difference between a session and a project in Pro Tools?

Session is on the local drive

Project is collaborative and is saved on the cloud


4-What is required to create a project document? What are some reasons you might want to create a project instead of a session?

Prevent loss of session if something bad happens to your computer

Ability to access at different locations

Ability to collaborate with people


4-What are some available options for parameter settings in the Dashboard?

Bit depth

sample rate

I/O settings

File type


Save location


4-What audio file types are supported in Pro Tools? What is the default file type?


WAV is the default


4-What is the maximum sample rate supported in Pro Tools? What is the maximum bit depth?

Sample rate - 192 kHz

Bit Depth - 32 bit floating


4-What menu command lets you add tracks to your session? What keyboard shortcut can you use to access this command?


Ctrl, Shift, N


4-How many tracks can you add to a session at one time?



4-Describe some primary track types that are available in Pro Tools. Describe the two types of Folder tracks.

Audio – Used to import, record, and edit audio signals as waveforms

  • MIDI – Used to import, record, and edit MIDI & controller data (no audio signal flow)
  • Instrument – Combine the functions of MIDI tracks and Aux Input tracks
  • Video – Used to add or import video (Pro Tools | Ultimate required for multiple Video tracks)
  • Aux Input – Used for effects returns, submixes, and routing live audio (or generating audio from a virtual instrument receiving MIDI input)
  • VCA Master – Used to control tracks in a Mix group
  • Master Fader – Used to control hardware output levels and bus path levels
  • Basic Folder – Used to organize sets of tracks into a collapsible collection
  • Routing Folder – Used like a Basic Folder with the added routing functionality of an Aux Input track


4-Which timebase do Audio tracks use by default? Which timebase do MIDI and Instrument tracks use by default?

Audio - Sample based

MIDI - Tick based


4-What happens to the audio and MIDI data on a track when the track gets deleted from your session? Can the Track > Delete command be undone?

The MIDI and Audio stays in the clip list.

No it cannot be undone


4-Name the two types of cursors available in the Edit window. What is the difference between them?

playback cursor and edit cursor

Playback - Solid blinking line that moves with playback

Edit - Blinking line on the track when you use the selector tool


4-Which tool can be used to set the playback point by clicking directly on a track?

Selector tool


4-What is the Playback Cursor Locator used for? Where will the Playback Cursor Locator appear (in what Ruler)?

It is used to find the playback location when it goes off the screen

It appears in the main time base ruler


4-What is the purpose of the Save As command? Which session will be open after completing the Save As command—the original or the renamed copy?

Save as makes a copy of the session and closes the original so that you can work in the copy. It is useful when wanting to save to a new location or to experiment without affecting the original copy.


4-What is the purpose of the Save As New Version command? What type of Pro Tools document does this command apply to?

To save a copy of a project similar to Save as

Only applies to Projects


4-How can you open a session after locating it in a Workspace browser?

Double click on it


5-How much disk space is consumed per minute by a mono track at a sample rate of 44.1 kHz and a bit depth of 16-bit? What happens to disk space consumption if the sample rate is doubled to 88.2 kHz with the same bit depth?

5 MB

It is doubled - 10MB


5-How can you monitor the storage space available on your system to determine the amount of record time remaining for each mounted drive?

In the Disk Usage window

Window>Disk Usage


5-How can you create a click track for a session? What kind of track is used for a click track?

Track>Create Click Track

Aux input


5-What window(s) can you use to record-enable an Audio track?

Edit or Mix


5-What selector can you use to route a signal from an input on your audio interface to a track for recording?

Audio Input Path Selector


5-How can you adjust the input level going to a record-enabled track? Can you use the Volume Fader to achieve a strong signal going to disk?

Adjust source volume, Microphone placement, Modify signal strength on audio interface



5-How can you place a session in Record Ready mode after record-enabling a track? What modifiers/shortcuts are available to initiate recording without first entering Record Ready mode?

Click record button in transport window or...

Ctrl space or....



5-Where are recorded audio files stored for Pro Tools sessions?

Clips list and tracks playlist


5-What term is used to describe an unedited audio file in Pro Tools? What term is used to describe the smaller, edited pieces of the original sound file?

Whole file clips

Subset clips


5-What types of clips are represented by boldface text in the Clip List? What type is represented by normal (plain) text?

Bold face is Whole file clips

normal is subset clips


5-How do track names affect the default names of the audio files you record in Pro Tools?

The audio files are named the track names and then there is an underscore and the take number. The dash will be the edit number in subset clips


5-Describe two ways to rename an audio file after recording into Pro Tools.

Dbl click on the file or clip(Grabber tool) in edit window or in clip list

Rt click on file or clip in edit window or clip list



5-How would you go about removing unwanted audio from the Clip List without deleting the files from disk?

CTRL click or click on down arrow on the clip and push CLEAR and the REMOVE


5-How would you go about deleting unused whole-file clips to erase them from your storage drive? Can this action be undone?

CTRL click or click on down arrow on the clip and push DELETE



6-What audio file formats can be imported to Pro Tools without requiring conversion?



6-What condition would cause a file in one of Pro Tools’ native formats to require conversion on import?

If the sample rate was not the same


6-Name some common audio file formats that Pro Tools can convert on import.



6-What are some video file formats that can be imported by Pro Tools?

Quicktime and AVID MXF


6-What is the difference between split stereo and interleaved stereo? Which is/are supported for importing into Pro Tools?

Split - Audio files are split into mono files for right and left

Interleaved - Combined into a single file

Both are supported


6-What is the difference between the Add button in the Import Audio dialog box and the Copy button? Which button will force-copy the files into your session’s Audio Files folder?

Add - adds the audio without copying it to the audio file folder. If sample rate is not the same then clip will not play back at correct speed or pitch

Copy - Will copy files into audio file folder - also will change to convert if sample rate does not match.


6-What happens when you use the Workspace browser to import audio that is not compatible with your session’s parameters (audio that requires conversion)? What happens when you import audio that does not require conversion?

It will automatically convert and copy audio files

If no conversion is necessary then they will be referenced and not copied.


6-What steps are required to conduct a search for an audio file using the Workspace browser?


ADVANCED SEARCH(magnify with +)




6-How would you go about importing a QuickTime movie file to Pro Tools while simultaneously importing the audio embedded in the file?



Click Open

If you want Audio then click the import audio box


6-How many video files can be associated with a standard Pro Tools session at once?



7-What does the term MIDI stand for? How is MIDI data different from the data stored in an audio file?

Musical Instrument Digital Interface

MIDI is data that is transmitted as a data about a performance not as waveforms


7-How many channels of MIDI information can be sent over a single MIDI cable?



7-What two types of tracks does Pro Tools provide for working with MIDI data? What is the difference between the two track types?

MIDI and Instrument

MIDI will not play audio - you will need to route it to Aux

Instrument will play audio


7-How many ticks are in a quarter note in Pro Tools?



7-Describe three ways to set the Main Time Scale to Bars|Beats.

bars/beats of ruler area

View>main counter> bars/beats

Main counter selector


7-What is the default meter in Pro Tools? How would you go about changing the meter?

4/4 - click on ADD METER CHANGE button(+) sign


7-What is the default tempo in Pro Tools?



7-What physical connections can you use to connect a MIDI controller to your system for recording on a MIDI or Instrument track?

MIDI interface or USB


7-Give some examples of virtual instrument plug-ins that are installed as standard components of Pro Tools. On which track types are virtual instrument plug-ins typically placed?

Xpand 2, Boom, Falcon

Instrument or Aux Input


7-How many parts can be included in an Xpand!2 patch? How can each part be turned on/off?


the power button next to the letter


7-What kind of virtual instrument is Boom? What does the Boom Matrix Display show?

Drum sequencer

the drum pattern


7-What track views are available for MIDI data in the Edit window? Which view allows you to scroll up or down to see notes at different pitches?

Notes view, clips view, velocity view

Notes view


7-What track types can display data in MIDI Editor windows?

Instrument, MIDI, Aux input


7-What is the Notation Display Enable button used for in the MIDI Editor window?

toggle between notes view and notation view


8 - What does the Universe view display? How can you use this view to scroll in the Edit window?

Shows an overview of the entire session

click in the Universe view display


8-What are the Timeline Selection In/Out Points? How can you use them to adjust a selection?

The start and end of a selection

You can click and drag them


8-How can you make an edit selection using the Grabber tool?

You click on the clip in that you would like. This can be in playlist or on the track itself


8-Describe two ways to make an edit selection using the Selector tool. How can the Selector tool be used to easily select an entire clip?

Click and drag or click then push down shift and click

double click


8-How can you make a selection across adjacent tracks using the Selector tool? How can you extend a selection to a nonadjacent track?

click and drag across the tracks

Shift and then click on the track


8-What does the Link Track and Edit Selection setting do?

shares edit selections across tracks


8-How does the Tab key affect the cursor position when working in a track? How does this behavior change when the Tab to Transients button is active in the Edit window?

It goes to the boundaries of the clips

It will go to the start of each transient


8-How can the track height be adjusted for a track? How can all tracks be set to the same height?

Tack options menu or the amplitude bar

Option and click the amplitude bar


8-Describe three ways to change the order of tracks in Pro Tools.

click and drag on name plate it edit window

click and drag in mix window

Click and drag in track list


8 - Describe the button in the Edit window that activates Zoom Toggle. What does the Zoom Toggle function do?

Arrows to the left of zoomer

goes between current zoom and zoomed in


8- What is the function of the buttons numbered 1 through 5 beneath the Zoom buttons?

They are zoom presets


8-What are the two main types of memory locations provided in Pro Tools? How many memory locations can you add to a session?

Markers and selections



8-How can you add a marker at the current cursor location? How can you add markers on the fly during playback?

Click the + button on marker ruler

Press enter on numeric keyboard


8 - Describe three ways to recall a memory location.

Click the marker symbol

In the memory locations window

on numeric keypad . # .


9 - What does the Loop Playback option do? What is the minimum loop length required for loop playback?

Allows you to listen to a section repeatedly

At least 0.5 seconds


9 - What happens when you delete a clip from between two existing clips in Shuffle mode? What happens when you do the same thing in Slip mode?

They'll move to the left to close up the space

There is no effect on subsequent clips


9- What happens when you move a clip whose start point falls between Grid lines in Absolute Grid mode? What happens when you do the same thing in Relative Grid mode?

It will snap its start time to the nearest grid line

The clip will move in grid increments preserving the offset from the grid.


9 - How can you configure the size of the Grid increments used in Grid mode? How can you display or hide the Grid lines in the Edit window?

Grid Value Pop-Up in Toolbar > Choose appropriate Time Scale > Click Grid Value pop-up selector again and choose corresponding grid size. (Available options vary depending on time scale)

Click main Timebase Ruler or click Grid Indicator in Toolbar


9 - Name some common editing commands provided in Pro Tools.

Cut, Copy, Paste, Clear, Duplicate, Repeat, Separate, Heal


9 - What are some operations that the Separate Clip command can be used for?

Split clip into two separate clips at insertion

Separate selection from larger clip / material on other side

Slice up clip at Grid Lines or transient locations


9 - What happens when you click on a clip with the Grabber tool in Spot mode?

The Spot dialog box will appear


9 - What is the Trim tool used for? What modifier can you use to reverse the direction of the Trim tool?

Dynamically adjusting length of clips

Option (Mac) / Alt (Windows) before trimming


9 - What is the Nudge value used for? In what Edit modes can the Nudge function be used?

To adjust placement in small, precise increments

All Edit modes


9 - What keys are used to nudge a clip or selection earlier or later on a track?

Plus (+) and Minus (-) on the numeric keypad


9 - How would you go about creating a fade-out at the end of a clip? How would you go about creating a crossfade between two adjacent clips?

Select end of clip > Command + F

Highlight boundary between clips > Command + F


9 - How many levels of operations can you undo in Pro Tools? What are some operations that cannot be undone?

64 levels

Deleting tracks

Closing Session / Quitting ProTools

Clearing audio from Clip List

Recording in Destructive Record Mode


9 - How can you display the Undo History window? What are some actions available in this window?

Window > Undo History

Multiple simultaneous undos / redos

Undo all

Redo all

Clear the queue


9 - What are some available options for undoing changes that are no longer available in the Undo History window? When would each option apply?

File > Revert to Saved (Goes back to last save point of your session)

File > Open Session > Choose Backup Folder (Goes back to specific date and time)


10-What term is used to describe an audio patch point that applies a signal processor directly into the signal path on a track? How many of these patch points does Pro Tools provide on each track?




10-What term is used to describe a signal path carrying a mix output of one or more tracks routed for parallel processing? How can this signal be returned to the sending device?




10- What menu would you use to display or hide the Mix window? What keyboard shortcut can you use to toggle between the Mix and Edit windows?


Command + =


10-What menu command can you use to display or hide an Inserts or Sends view area in the Mix window?

view>mix window


10-What type of plug-in provides real-time processing? What type provides non-real-time processing?

AAX - file based = real time

audiosuite = not real time


10-What are some commonly used plug-in options for EQ and dynamics processing in Pro Tools?


Avid dynamics III

Avid Channel Strip


10-Which Pro Tools automation mode discussed in this lesson records changes to track controls in real time when playing back the session?



10-What is the difference between Read mode and Off mode? Which mode allows you to play back existing automation on the track?

Read - Will play the automation

Off - will not play the automation

read mode


10-What track control can you use to display an automation playlist? What window are automation playlists displayed in?

track view selector



10-What tool can you use to add, move, or delete automation breakpoints? What modifier can you use to delete a breakpoint by clicking on it?




10-Why is it important to back up your Pro Tools sessions? What are some ways in which your Pro Tools work can be lost accidentally?

So you dont lose your work

Virus, Corruption, accidental deletion


10-.How is the Save Copy In command different from the Save As command, in terms of the files that are saved?

Save as - only session file

Save copy in- all files are copied


10-Which session will be open after completing a Save Copy In operation: the original or the copy? How is this different from the Save As operation?

The original will be open with save copy in

The copy with save copy as


10-What command can you use to save a session with a different sample rate or bit depth?

save copy in


10-What are some considerations for bouncing audio in Pro Tools? How is the bounce affected by soloed or muted tracks? How is it affected by the active selection?

make sure it is routed correctly

based on timeline selection

only the audio that you can hear will be bounced, if something is muted it will not be bounced


10-What command lets you mix your entire session directly to a stereo file? What file types are supported for the bounce file with this command?

Bounce to disk



10-What bit depth and sample rate should you use when bouncing if you plan to burn the file to CD without further processing?

16 bit, 44.1kHz


10-How can you add audio files to iTunes for use in burning a CD??

click interleaved and add to itunes in the bounce window