HW 5 Flashcards


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1

What color are clouds as seen from space?

white because water drops and ice scatter all wavelengths

No answer text provided.

blue because water drops and ice absorb red light

red because water drops and ice absorb blue light

white because water drops and ice scatter all wavelengths

2

From what optical depth into the Sun does the Sun emit light to space?

τ = 4

τ = 0

τ = 1

τ = 3

τ = 2

τ = 1

3

What do we call the layer of the Sun that emits light to space?

photosphere

emittosphere

visosphere

hottisphere

lightosphere

photosphere

4

What does optically thick mean?

transparent

opaque

near-sighted

more than 1 km

less than 1 km

opaque

5

What does optically thin mean?

more than 1 km

less than 1 km

transparent

far-sighted

opaque

transparent

6

Why is the sky blue?

gas molecules scatter long wavelengths more than short wavelengths

gas molecules scatter short wavelengths more than long wavelengths

blue light passes through gases without scattering

No answer text provided.

gas molecules scatter short wavelengths more than long wavelengths

7

Large optical depth τ ≫ 1 corresponds to being

red

optically thick

optically thin

blue

optically thick

8

How deep into a gas does the gas emit radiation like a solid surface?

τ = 0

τ = 3

τ = 2

τ = 1

τ = 4

τ = 1

9

The optical depth τ for some path of light through a gas depends on

the density ρ of the gas

all of these answers

the length Δz of the light path

a constant k describing how readily the gas tends to absorb or scatter radiation

all of these answers

10

Small optical depth τ ≪ 1 corresponds to being

red

optically thin

optically thick

blue

optically thin

11

Who is credited with postulating the existence of a greenhouse effect and thereby kicking off the field of climate science?

Dave Keeling

James Hansen

Svante Arrhenius

John Tyndall

Joseph Fourier

Joseph Fourier

12

Which of the following gases is relatively opaque to longwave radiation?

oxygen

nitrogen

carbon dioxide

argon

carbon dioxide

13

Which of the following gases is transparent to longwave radiation?

carbon dioxide

methane

water vapor

oxygen

oxygen

14

On planet Cruftulon, the effective height of longwave emission to space is at 3 km where the temperature is 310 K. If the lapse rate in Kruftulon’s dry atmosphere is 10 K/km, what is the surface temperature?

320 K

300 K

270 K

340 K

340 K

To get surface temperature of Earth:

Temp + (Lapse Rate x distance)

15

Which of the following is not a greenhouse gas?

methane

water vapor

nitrogen

carbon dioxide

nitrogen

16

On planet Zorkon, the effective height of longwave emission to space is at 9 km where the temperature is 210 K. If the lapse rate in Zorkon’s dry atmosphere is 10 K/km, what is the surface temperature?

200 K

120 K

300 K

220 K

300 K

To get surface temperature of Earth:

Temp + (Lapse Rate x distance)

17

Which more strongly absorbs longwave radiation?

oxygen

water vapor

water vapor

18

What best describes the atmospheric greenhouse effect?

greenhouse gases prevent heat from convecting away from the surface

the greening of the Earth by vegetation makes it warmer

the atmosphere lets shortwave pass through but greenhouse gases readily absorb longwave

the atmosphere lets shortwave pass through but greenhouse gases readily absorb longwave

19

In what year was the greenhouse effect postulated, thereby initiating the field of climate science?

1969

1988

1924

1824

1824

20

Who is credited with identifying the gases responsible for the greenhouse effect?

Dave Keeling

John Tyndall

Joseph Fourier

Svante Arrhenius

James Hansen

John Tyndall

21

Which causes the greater amount of additional warming?

an increase of CO2 from 400 to 500 ppm

No answer text provided.

an increase of CO2 from 300 to 400 ppm

No answer text provided.

an increase of CO2 from 300 to 400 ppm

*Remember, after the first doubling of CO2, you get a smaller warming increment -- meaning the temp is increasing at smaller increments (look at slides with graph in lecture discovery of global warming)

22

Who is credited with alerting scientists to global warming by documenting the rising concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?

Joseph Fourier

Dave Keeling

Svante Arrhenius

James Hansen

John Tyndall

Dave Keeling

23

Who first predicted global warming and made a calculation of Earth’s climate sensitivity?

Joseph Fourier

John Tyndall

James Hansen

Svante Arrhenius

Dave Keeling

Svante Arrhenius

24

What was the preindustral concentration of carbon dioxide?

28 ppm

560 ppm

280 ppm

56 ppm

280 ppm

25

In what year did congressional testimony first raise public awareness about global warming?

1896

2007

1954

1988

1988

26

If Earth’s mean temperature increases from 288 K to 291 K when CO2 is doubled from its preindustrial concentration, what mean temperature would you expect if CO2 were quadrupled from its preindustrial concentration?

297 K

No answer text provided.

294 K

300 K

294 K

*Look at slide/graphs in lecture discovery of global warming that says

add the 1st 280 ppm: +3.0 K

add the 2nd 280 ppm: +1.8 K

add the 3rd 280 ppm: +1.2K

*don't get confused--this is "quadrupling" of CO2-- look at colored arrow 1 <---> 2, 2 <---> 3, 3 <---> 4 on slides

In this case, it already accounted for the first doubling and temp increases to 291 -- now simply add 1.8K + 1.2 K to 291 = 294 K

27

What is the mean of 0, 4, and 8?

12

9

6

4

0

4

0+4+8= 12/3 (there are three numbers in this case) = 4

28

Why is the amount of oxygen in the atmosphere decreasing?

oxygen is being absorbed into the warmer ocean

No answer text provided.

oxygen is slowly being lost to space like all other gases

oxygen is being reacted with carbon to make carbon dioxide

oxygen is being reacted with carbon to make carbon dioxide

*this is the reverse of photosynthesis and what happens during combustion of fossil fuels!

29

The first prediction of global warming was made in what year?

1896

2001

1988

1969

1896

30

In what decade did measurements on Mauna Loa first document rising concentrations of CO2?

1960s

1890s

1980s

2000s

1960s

31

Who is credited with alerting the public to global warming with his congressional testimony?

Svante Arrhenius

James Hansen

John Tyndall

Dave Keeling

Joseph Fourier

James Hansen

32

Climate sensitivity is the

the sensitivity of plants to changes in climate

change in temperature for a doubling of CO2

change in CO2 for a doubling of temperature

change in temperature for a doubling of CO2

33

What is the modern best estimate of Earth’s climate sensitivity?

30 K

3 K

0.3 K

0.03 K

3 K

34

What is the modern estimate for the likely range of Earth’s climate sensitivity?

1.5 to 4.5 K

15 to 45K

0.015 to 0.045 K

0.15 to 0.45 K

1.5 to 4.5 K