Basic Patient Care MIDTERM EXAM Flashcards


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1
  1. What is recommended to prevent the spread of infection in a health care setting?

HANDWASHING

2

What is cultural diversity?

Quality of diverse or different cultures and having different cultures respect.

3

Sepsis

A condition when microorganism or their toxins are present in the blood, this throughout the entire body,

4

What is Asepsis?

Absence of microorganisms that produce disease; the prevention of infection by maintaining a sterile condition

5

What is Contamination?

Something is rendered unclean or nonsterile: item, surface is considered contaminated when it has come into contact with anything that is not sterile.

6

What is Isolation?

Separation from orders in order to prevent a spread of an infection, disease or virus.

7

What are the steps of infectious cycle?

1: Infectious agent

2: Reservoir

3: Exit

4:Method of transmission

5: Entry

6: Suceptible host

8

What is and infectious agent?

Pathogens that cause communicable diseases

9

What is a reservoir?

Microorganism require a place or host where they can grow and produce.

10

What is an exit?

Microorganism also require a means by which they can leave the host.

11

What is a transmission?

The passage from one person to another to spread the infection

12

What is an infection?

To infect another person, the microorganism must enter that person.

13

What is susceptibility?

The person who receives the microorganism must be susceptible to them. The body cannot destroy or remove the microorganism.

14

What are the most common modes of transmission?

Droplets

direct conntact

15

What are droplets?

Droplets that come out of the environment in a cough or sneeze.

16

What is direct contact?

Contact with another person skin, equipment, mat pads, instruments, utensils, toys, etc,

17

What is a vector?

Animals who contains the pathogenic microorganisms which can infect a person by direct contact transmission

18

What is airborne?

Airborn microorganism suspend in the air.

19

Herpes simplex virus MOT(Mode of transmission )

Contact

20

Staphylococcus aureus Mode of transmission

Direct contact

21

C. DIFFICILE Mode of transmission

Contact

22

Strep Throat Mode of transmission

Droplet

23

Meningitis mode of transmission

Droplet

24

Influenza mode of transmission

Droplet

25

Pertussis(Whooping cough)mode of transmission

Droplet

26

Measles mode of transmission

Airborne

27

M. Tuberculosis mode of transmission

Airborne

28

Pneumonia mode of transmission

Droplet

29

Common cold mode of transmission

Droplet

30

Mumps mode of transmission

Droplet

31

Varicella mode of transmission

Airborne

32

DONNING

  1. Hand hyginene
  2. gown
  3. mask or respirator
  4. goggles/face shield
  5. gloves
33

DOFFING

  1. Gloves
  2. goggles/ face shield
  3. gown
  4. mask or respirator
  5. hand hygiene
34

Where do soiled items get disposed?

In an appropriate container called soiled linen bags

35

What is the purpose of a sterile field?

Designed to maintain the sterility of objects contained within the field such as dressings, bandages and instruments.

36

RBC count?

Red blood cell

male: 25 to 35 ml/kg

female: 20-30 II

37

WBC count?

White blood cell count

4.3-10.8 x 10^9/L

38

Hgb count?

Hemoglobin count

M: 14-17 g/dl

F: 12-16 g/dl

39

Method for sterile field?

  1. Know sterile items
  2. Know non sterile items
  3. separate sterile items from nonsterile itmes
  4. If any time is contaminated, remedy the situation immediately.
40

Hct count?

Hematocrit count

M: 40-51%

F: 36- 47 %

41

What is traction?

The exertion of a pulling or distracting force to maintain a proper position of bone ends or joints to facilitate the healing process.

42

What is dialysis?

The diffusion of solute molecules through a semipermeable membrane passing from the side of higher concentration to the side of lower concentration; a method used in cases of defective renal function to remove elements from the blood that are normally excreted in the urine (hemodialysis).

43

What is external fixation?

is a form of stabilization and traction that uses a variety of frames applied externally to the patient's extremity

44

What is internal fixation?

method of treatment uses hardware applied internally to or within bone to maintain its alignment and stability after fracture reduction

45

Order of skin layers?

  1. Epidermis
  2. papillary dermis
  3. reticular dermis
  4. subcutaneous tissue
46

Epidermis

Stratum cumeum

sweat duct

capillary

nerve endings

47

Papillary dermis

Sebaceous gland

nerve endings

48

Reticular dermis

Nerve endings

hair follicle

49

Subcutaneous tissue

Blood vessels

fat

sweat gland

hair bulb

50

Stage 1 pressure injury

Intact skin with nonblanchable erythema of a localized area, over bone prominence—- dark pigmented

51

Stage 2 pressure injury

Partial-thickness skin loss with exposed dermis manifesting as a shallow open wound with a red-pink/red moist wound bed, without slough, granulation, and eschar; also may manifest as an intact or open or ruptured serum-filled blister

52

Stage 3 pressure injury

Full-thickness skin loss; subcutaneous fat may be visible, but bone, ligaments, fascia, tendon, cartilage, or muscles are not exposed;

53

Stage 4 pressure injury

Full-thickness tissue and skin loss with exposed or directly palpable bone, tendon, fascia, ligament, cartilage, or muscle;

54

Unstageable pressure injury

Obscured full-thickness skin and tissue loss in which the base of the injury is covered by slough (yellow, tan, gray, green, or brown) and/or eschar (tan, brown, or black) in the wound bed and the extent of the damage within the ulcer cannot be determined

55

Deep tissue pressure injury

Localized area of discolored purple, deep red, or maroon intact or nonintact skin or blood-filled blister owing to damage of underlying soft tissue from intense or prolonged pressure and/or shear.

56

Position to avoid pressure injury in the occipital tuberosity

Prone

57

Spine of scapular position for pressure injury

Supine

58

Sacrum position for pressure injury

Supine

59

Heels position fro pressure injury

Sitting and supine

60

Acromion position for pressure injury

Side lying

61

Lateral epicondyles position for pressure injury

Side lying

62

Anterior iliac crest position for pressure injury

Prone

63

Metatarsals heads position for pressure injury

Sitting

64

Patellar position for pressure injury

Prone

65

Lateral malleoli position for pressure injury

Side lying

66

Inf angle of scapula position for pressure einjury

Sitting

67

Knee pads position for pressure injury

Prone

68

Transverse processes of the vertebrate position for pressure injury

Supine

69

Posterior iliac crest position for pressure injury

Prone

70

Pulse oximetry

It is use for vital signs check. It measures the Level of blood oxygen saturation, and heart rate.

71

Sphygmomanometer

An instrument used to measure blood pressure; it may use a mercury column or an enclosed air-pressure spring system. Used for vital signs check.

72

Thermometer

Measures body temperature. Used for vital signs check.

73

Tourniquet

Used to stop and contain the bleeding of an open injury.

74

Orthostatic hypotension signs

Dizziness, syncope, blurred vision

75

Hypoglycemia signs

Pale and moist skin

shakiness

sweating

tingling sensation

double vision

76

Metabolic acidosis signs

Skin is flushed and dry

Drowsy and fatigue

deep breathing

vomiting

headache

blurred vision

77

Autonomic dysreflexia

Sever hypertension

bradycardia

headache

discomfort general

red skin blotches

goose bumps

78

How should a seizing individuals’s head be positioned after convulsions subside?

Side lying

79

Sign and symptoms of Virchow’s and Well’s

Development of DVT, deep vein thrombosis

swelling, redness, pain in calf area.

80

At what level of an SCI does Autonomic dysreflexia develop

T6 cord level

81

Venous insufficiency

Wound accompanied by edema, dark, dusky skin discoloration

82

Arterial insufficiency

Small wound accompanied by localized edema, it can be caused by diabetes.

83

HR

80bpm

84

BP

110/70

85

RR

12- 20 rr

86

Oxygen Saturation

98%

87

Temperature

98.6

88

For patients unable to hold a thermometer in the mouth, which secondary source may be used to obtain?

Rectum(most accurate)

89

What are the arteries that can be palpated?

Radial

carotid

brachial artery

femoral

popliteal

dorsal pedal

90

What is the correct method to take a person’s pulse? What finger?

Place two fingers over the artery

avoid using thumb

do not apply excessive pressure

91

What is the most important concept for maintaining body mechanics?

Body mechanics is the use of one’s body to produce motion that is safe, energy-conserving, and anatomically and physiologically efficient and maintains body balance and control.

92

What is an important concept of body mechanics when lifting heavy objects?

Position yourself so that your center of gravity and the center of gravity of the object are as close as possible. Increase your base of support.

93

How are compressive forces directed to intervertebral discs during lumbar lordosis?

When the back is in the lordotic posture, compression forces on the intervertebral disk are directed anteriorly rather than posteriorly, a direction that reduces the potential for a posteriolateral rupture of the disk.

94

The plumb line method is used for which of the following assessments?

Patient stands lateral to a plumb line. The ideal alignment requires that the rest as follows: slightly anterior to the lateral malleolus, slightly anterior to the midline of the knee, greater trochanter, midline of the trunk, shoulder joint, body of vertebrate and lobe of the ear.

95

Which lift involves picking up an object in a manner similar to the way a golfer removes a golf ball from the cup?

One- leg stance lift (golfer’s lift)

96

What area of the spine is host to the most injuries caused by lifting?

The lumbar spine is where most injuries occur, secondary to lifting or activities.

97

How frequently should a dependent patient’s position be changed?

Every 2 hours

98

Which of the exercises would help a patient bound to a wheelchair alleviate pressure on the ischial tuberosity?

Wheelchair push ups

99

Which position is harmful to a patient for a prolonged amount of time due to the risk of developing contracture?

Supine

100

Which position of the involved upper extremely are most detrimental to a patient’s with hemiplagia?

Prolonged shoulder abduction

internal rotation

elbow flexion

Supination

pronation

wrist and finger thumb flexion

abduction of thumb

101

What position should the affected extremity be positioned at rest in a total knee replacement.?

Extension

102

What are the posterior lateral THR precautions?

Hip flexion past 90 degrees

internal rotation past neutral

adduction past neutral

12 week with precautions

103

Anterior THR precaution?

Hip extension past neutral

external rotation past neutral

adduction past neutral

8 weeks with precautions

104

AAROM ?

Exercise in the form of active exercise whereby an external force is used to help the patient to perform the exercise

105

AROM?

Movement of a joint or body segment produce by active, voluntary muscle contraction by the patient within the unrestricted, normal ROM

106

PROM?

Movement of a joint or body segment by a force external to the body within an unrestricted and normal ROM without active voluntary muscle contraction by the patient.

107

Concentric?

Any movement done against gravity

Flexing bicep Brachii

108

Eccentric?

Any movement done with gravity, coming down from full flexion in standing position

ex: coming from elbow flexion to elbow extension slowly.

109

Isometric?

One that involves muscle engagement without movement

ex: gluteal isometric

110

Isokinetic?

Moment at a constant speed regardless of the force applied

111

Standby assistance?

Pt requires no more help than to stand by, no physical contact. Just cueing

112

Contact guarding?

Minimal assistance where pt requires occasional contact to maintain balance or dynamic stability.

113

Minimal assistance?

Pt requires small amount of help to complete the activity, pt does 75% or more of the activity. Able to assume body weight.

114

Moderate assistance?

Pt efforts is between 50% and 75%. Pt is able to assume some of his body weight.

115

What type of transfer assistance is used when patient perform only 25% to 49% of the activity

Max Asist

116

What type of transfer should be used when moving a patient who is total A from bed to WC?

Sitting, dependent

117

Describe the method of turning a patient from supine to SL, SL to sit, and then back to SL

Move the patient to the edge of the bed, roll the patient to side lying position while the lower extremities are slightly flex. Explain to the pt. at the count of 3 elevate the trunk and pivot the pt.’s legs over the side of the bed into a seated position. To move back to side lying cradle the pt.’s head in your arm and tilt his trunk until he is lying in side lying and lift his legs.

118

THR anterior, precaution?

Hip extension past neutraL

ER past neutral

adduction past neutral

119

THR posterior, precautions?

Hip flexion past 90

IR past neutral

adduction past neutral

120

CVA precautions?

Flexion past 90, lift more than 10 pounds, ER & IR past neutral. Sitting and standing for long periods of time.

121

Spinal cord injury precaution?

There can not be not rotation or distracting factors

do not move the patient downward by pulling

122

How should a patient be instructed to breathe when at the point of exertion with exercise?

Exhale upon exertion to avoid increased intrathorasic pressure

Avoid valslva maneuver

123

Sliding board transfer bed to wheelchair?

  1. Position wheelchair in an angle
  2. wheels locked
  3. apply gait belt
  4. remove feet from footrest
  5. position board under thigh
  6. Tell patient to stabalize board with hand
  7. Begging moving little by little
  8. remove board from thigh
124

Wheelchair to bed transfer?

  1. Position chair at an angle
  2. help patient move forward in the chair
  3. place board under thigh and end of board in the bed
  4. help patient move across the board
  5. Remove the board from patient’s thigh
  6. Position pt in a comfort position and remove gait belt
125

Stand pivot transfer?

  1. Position wheelchair in angle
  2. Lock the wheelchair
  3. apply gait belt
  4. remove arm rest
  5. count to 3
  6. Lift patient
  7. pivot
  8. sit pt in wheelchair
126

Squad pivot transfer?

  1. Position wheelchair at 45 degree anlge
  2. apply gait belt
  3. lock the wheelchair
  4. remove arm rest
  5. stand infront of the patient
  6. Flex PTA hips and knees
  7. lift patient
  8. without extending pt knees move to wheelchair