Pathology Exam 3 Review Flashcards


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1

What is differentiation

Is the process by which normal cells undergo physical and structural changes as they develop to from different tissue of the body

2

What is Dysplasia?

It is a general category that indicates a disorganization of the cells in which an adult cell varies from its normal size, shape, or organization.

3

What is Metaplasia?

It is the first level of dysplasia. It gives rise to arrangement to one type of cell to another.

4

Hyperplasia

Refers to an increase in the number of the cells in tissue, resulting in increased tissue mass.

5

Tumors

Abnormal growth of new tissue that serve no useful purpose and may harm the host organism by competing for vital blood supply and nutrients.

6

Cancer risk factors

Advancing age

lifestyle or personal behaviors

type 2 diabetes

exposure to viruses

hereditary

stress

7

Intervention are contraindicated with active cancer patients page.

Avoid sitting on low or soft furniture that requires more energy expenditure to get up again.

Avoid or keep to a minimum the climbing of stairs

Avoid activities so that it is not necessary to Make frequent trips or walk long distances at home, school and work.

8

Word for muscle loss for patients that have cancer.

Cockatsia

9

Estrogen replacement cancer?

Breast cancer

10

Phases of healing

  1. Hemostasis and degeneration
  2. inflammation
  3. Proliferation and migration
  4. remodeling and maturation
11

Bone fractures unique to children

Green stick.

12

What part of bone do children mostly break

Epiphyseal plates

13

Time that women can mostly be injured in the musculoskeletal system?

Ovulation period

14

Interventions for septic arthratis for the knee specifically 500 page

Splinting

traction

casting

ROM exercises

15

Treatments for osteomyelitis 497 table 15.1

Strict aseptic technique

Recontrictive surgery

Assess vital signs

AAROM, PROM, AROM exercises of adjacent joints are essential

Massage or any technique

16

Clinical manifestations of osteomyelitis

Back pain chief complaint

low-grade fever

children (acute, severe complaints, intense)

Edema

erythema

tenderness

17

What is the MOST AFFECTED WAY TO STOP INFECTION?

WASH HANDS

18

Under osteomyelitis leads to a fracture? Why?

Pathologic fracture

19

Wha is a Red flag for emergency with bone patient cancer?

Sudden Night pain that wakes you up.

20

Where does the Bakers cyst develop?

Occurs in the knee

21

Osteosarcoma

Ewing’s sarcoma

22

What cells causes new bone cell formation?

Osteoblast

23

What is Multiple myolomas? Page 524

White blood celll cancer in the bone marrow

hematopoietic neoplasm involving bone marrow

24

Bone mineral density testing

Often used as a proxy measure and accounts for approximately 70% of bone strength.

Assess for osteoporosis.

25

Oshgood shlated disease when it happends?

Adolescents

Puberty

26

What type of bone Fractures that come with osteoporosis?

Compression fracture in the vertebrate

27

Bamboo spine ?

Ankylosis spondylitis

28

Epithelial tissue bening tumors

Papiloma

adenoma

nevus (mole)

29

Ephithelial tissue malignant tumors

Squamous cell

basal cell

transitional cell carcinoma

adenocarcinoma

malignant melanoma

30

Connective tissue and muscle bening tumors

Fibroma

lipoma

chondroma

osteoma

hemangioma

leiomyoma

rhabdomyoma

31

Connective tissue malignant tumors

Fibrosarcoma

liposarcoma

chondrosarcoma

osteosarcoma

hemagiosarcoma

leiomyosarcoma

rhabdomyosarcoma

32

Nerve tissue bening tumors

Ganglioneuroma

neurilemoma

meningioma

33

Nerve tissue malignant tumors

Glioma or neuroglioma

neuroblastoma

neurilemic sarcoma

meningieal sarcoma

retinoblastoma

34

Lymphoid tissue malignant tumors

Lymphoma

35

Hematopoietic tissue malignant tumors

Leukimeas

myeloidaplasia

myeloproliferative syndromes

multiple myeloma

36

Stage 0 cancer

Carcinoma in situ( premalignant, preinvasive)

37

Stage 1 cancer

Early stage, local cancer

38

Stage 2 cancer

Increased risk of spread because of tumor size

39

Stage 3 cancer

Local cancer has spread but may not be disseminated to distant regions

40

Stage 4 cancer

Cancer has spread and disseminated to distant sites.

41

Bacon looking Iike malignant cancer that metastasize to bone

Breast cancer

42

Lettuce looking like malignant cancer that metastasize to bone

Lung cancer

43

Tomato looking like malignant cancer that metastasize to bone

Thyroid cancer

44

Kosher pickle looking like malignant cancer that metastasize to bone

Prostate cancer

kidney cancer

45

What is the site of most common bone metastases

The spine

46

Seed vs solid theory

Some cancers favor certain sites of metastasis over other so that metastases occur only if the cancer cell (the seed) finds a favorable microenvironment at the site of the host (soil).

Traditional treatment targets the seed

Today’s research target the soil

47

Intervention are contraindicated with active cancer patients page

Avoid or keep to a minimum the climbing of stairs.

Avoid sitting on low or soft furniture that requires more energy expenditure to get up again

delay exercises with severe anemia survivors.

Avoid gyms or public places if compromised with immune function.

Avoid exposure to chlorine

48

Classification for bone mineral density (WHO)

-1.0 OR HIGHER

Normal, low risk for fracture

49

T-score

-1.0- 2.5

Osteopenia (low bone mass)

50

T-score:

-2.5 or lower

Osteoporosis

51

Onset OA

Usually begins at 40 y/o

affects adults more than 65

52

Onset RA

25-50 y/o

sudden over several week.

53

Incidence OA

12% OF THE US ADULTS: 21 MILLIONS

54

Incidence RA

1%- 2% of US adults’

600,000 men

1.5 million women

55

Gender OA

Women

56

Gender RA

Women

sever in men

57

Etiology OA

Unknown

possible genetics and environmental triggers

58

Etiology RA

Bio mechanical factors

biochemestry

previous injury

inherited predisposition

59

Clinical manifestation OA

Joints and assimmetrical or one side of the body

affects hips, knees, spine, hands, feet inflammation

redness, warmth. Swelling in 10%

morning stiffness

60

Clinical manifestation RA

SYMMETRICAL JOINT DISTRIBUTION

Affects any joints (large or small)

Upper extremities predilection

inflammation

morning stiffness

61

Sign and symptoms OA

NO SYSTMEIC SYMPTOMS

Possible associated with trigger points

62

Sign and symptoms RA

Fatigue

malaise

weight loss

fever

63

Stage 1 Avascular Legg-calve- Perthes

1-2 weeks

Quit place

spontaneous vascular interruption to epiphysis causes necrosis of femoral head

hip and joint capsule are swollen, edematous and hypermic

joint spaces widens while cells die

64

Stage 2 revascularization fragmentation stage

legg calve

6-12 months

vascular reaction begins with new blood supply

bone reabsorption and deposition of new bone cells

due to the anterior part of femoral head is necrotic blood supply and decalcification makes the joint soft

granulation tissue and blood vessels invade the dead bone

65

Stage 3 reparative residual stage

legg calve

2-3 years

New bone replaces necrotic bone

femoral head is replace by new bone

flattening of femoral head causes femoral neck to become short and wide

66

Regenerative intravascular stage

Final months

complete healing

regeneration reforms femur head with spongy bones

residual deformities may exist in some cases

67

Class 1 heterotropic ossification

Presence of heterotopic ossification but without functional range-of-motion limitation.

68

Class 2 heterotopic ossification

Heterotopic ossification with limitation in all planes of motion

69

Class3 heterotopic ossification

With ankylosis preventing motion

70

What population get dog ears on knee (protrusion of tibial tuberosity)

Adolescents