Fundamentals of Nursing: Nutrition Flashcards


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1

what is nutrition used for?

growth, development, recovery, illness, etc.

2

Can nutrition change your state of health?

yes

3

What are the classes of nutrition and what do they do for the body?

carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids supply energy

vitamins, minerals, and water regulate body processes

4

Energy in nutrients is measured in?

calories

5

Energy in the body is used to carry out _______?

activities

6

what is a voluntary activity?

something you can control, such as physical activity

7

what is an involuntary activity?

something you can't control, such as thermoregulation and hormones

8

What is basal metabolism?

the energy required to carry on the involuntary activities of the body at rest

9

Why do men usually have a higher basal metabolic rate (BMR) than women?

because of the larger muscle mass

10

Other factors that affect BMR

growth, infections, fever, emotional tension or stress, extreme environmental temperatures, elevated levels of certain hormones

11

What decreases BMR?

aging, prolonged fasting, and decreased sleep

12

BMI guidelines

underweight <18.5

normal 18.5 - 24.9

overweight - 25.0 - 29.9

obesity > 30

extreme obesity >40

13

What are some carbohydrates?

bread, pasta, sugary fruits, starch, potatoes

14

The primary function of carbs is to:

provide energy, they are converted to glucose for transport through blood or for use as energy

15

What are some proteins?

eggs, meat

16

proteins are:

a vital component of every living cell

required for the formation of all body structures

secondary energy source

maintains body tissues that break down from normal "wear and tear" and supports new tissue growth

protein is needed to prevent pressure ulcers

17

lipids are insoluble in

water and blood

18

saturated fats increase what levels?

LDL cholesterol in the blood and results in fatty deposits on cardiovascular walls

19

lipids are:

known as fats, 95% of lipids in diet are triglycerides

contain mixtures of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids

most animal fats are saturated, most vegetable fats are unsaturated

fat aids in the absorption of vitamins

provide insulation, structure and temp. control for the body

component of every cell membrane and is essential for cell metabolism

20

what type of fats should we eliminate from our diet?

trans fats

21

vitamins are needed for?

the metabolism of carbohydrates proteins and fat

22

where are vitamins found?

food, fresh foods are higher in vitamins than processed because vitamins are destroyed by light, heat , air and during preparation

23

vitamins can be classified as?

water soluble or fat soluble

24

Water soluble vitamins

vitamin C

B complex vitamins

absorbed through the intestinal wall directly in to the bloodstream

usually are not stored in the body

25

fat soluble vitamins

vitamin A, D, E, and K

absorbed with fat into the lymphatic circulation

they must be attached to a protein to be transported through the blood

the body stores excesses of the fat soluble vitamins mostly in the liver and the adipose tissue

26

vitamin A affects

visual acuity, skin and mucous membranes, and immune function

27

vitamin d provides

calcium and phosphorus metabolism and stimulates calcium absorption

28

vitamin E is

an antioxidant that protects vitamin A

29

Vitamin K helps with

the synthesis of certain proteins necessary for blood clotting

30

are vitamins a good way to intake vitamins into the body?

no, it's better to eat the food enriched with the vitamins

31

minerals are:

calcium, phosphorus, sulfur, sodium chloride

32

how much macrominerals do you need in a day?

more than 100 mg.

33

what are minerals?

inorganic elements found in all body fluids and tissues in the form of salts or combined with organic compounds

34

minerals provide

structure within the body

35

minerals help regulate

body processes

36

what do minerals assist in?

fluid regulation, nerve impulse transmission, energy production, and are essential for healthy bones and blood

37

minerals are mostly absorbed in?

the small intestine

38

what does water aid with in the body?

digestion, absorption, circulation, and excretion

39

How does water regulate body temperature?

through evaporation from the skin

40

average intake of water for an adult?

2200-3000 mL per day

41

How does water leave the body?

urine, feces, expired air, perspiration

42

What are some dietary guidelines?

consume a variety of nutrient rich foods daily

adopt a balanced eating pattern

limit the intake of saturated fats, trans fats and cholesterol

limit the intake of added sugars, salt and alcohol

achieve a healthy weight

be physically active, balance calorie intake with activity performed

drink the recommended daily amount of water

choose to eat fruits and vegetables every day

at least half of grains consumed should come from whole grains

cook, chill, and store food as directed to keep it safe from microorganisms

clean hands, contact surfaces, and fruits and vegetables

43

Always make sure you know the _____________ when looking at a nutrition label

serving size

44

What are some tips we could give to help others build a healthy meal?

recommended intake of water

1/2 plate fruit and veggie

lg. portion of lean meat

control portion sizes

enjoy sugars in moderation

talk about healthy choices on teh menu

45

malnutrition signs are

fatigue, no energy, depressed, overweight, underweight, dull/dry and brittle hair, dark skin over cheeks and around eyes, flaky skin, pale skin color, dry eyes, small yellowish lumps around eyes, swollen and puffy lips, tongue is smooth/beefy red and swollen, teeth could be missing or have cavities, gums are spongy and bleed easily, glands are swollen, dry flaky skin, nails are brittle and ridged, muscles are flaccid, extremities are weak and tender, abdomen is swollen, decrease in reflexes, cardiac enlargement, tachycardia, abnormal bp, enlarged liver or spleen

46

Things to look for in your patient

past and current drug history, drug dependence or abuse, ability to chew/swallow/ condition of teeth, appetite/allergies, age/gender/ family history/lifestyle, occupation/exercise/sleep patterns, religious or cultural considerations, source of income/food budget

47

clear liquid diet

provides fluid to prevent dehydration, requires minimal digestion, includes water, tea, coffee, broth, carbonated beverages, popsicles, gelatin, clear fruit juices (apple, cranberry, grape).

does not provide proper calories, want to be able to switch to full liquid diet asap

48

full liquid diet

contains all liquids in the clear liquid diet plus any food items that can be poured at room temperature. includes: all clear liquids, milk or skim milk, soups, pudding, yogurt, custard, plain frozen desserts, vegetable juices

49

what is a mechanical soft diet?

regular diet with modifications for texture, foods are chopped, pureed, ground, mashed or soft.

50

Are these types of diets usually adequate in calories and nutrition?

yes

51

Why might patients on these types of diets become constipated?

because fiber has been taken out of the diet, they will become constipated especially if they have been on the diet for a long time

52

What is NPO?

used prior to procedure, sometimes 2 or 3 days before procedure

make sure family knows patient isn't supposed to eat or drink anything

NPO more than 3 days puts pt. at risk for malnutrition

53

What is consistent carb diet used for?

diabetics

54

what is fat restricted diet used for

gall bladder issues/stimulation

55

what is high fiber diet used for

prevent or treat constipation, IBS, divertulosis

56

what is low fiber diet used for

before surgery, crohns disease, diarrhea

57

what is sodium restricted used for

HTN, heart failure, liver disease, kidney disease

58

what is a renal diet used for

kidney issues, CKD, dialysis, etc.

59

What are some factors that contribute to impaired swallowing (dysphagia)?

stroke, recent intubation, pocketing food, patient being distracted while eating, being rushed or forced to eat, level of consciousness, head of bed not being high enough

obtain a speech therapy consult for any indication of impaired swallowing.

60

What feeding strategies should you use if your patient has a cognitive impairment?

stay with patient, make sure they're sitting up in bed, sit eye level if you're feeding them, talk them through it, make area suitable for eating (remove bedpan, unpleasant smells), be alert for cues that they need to slow down, offer one food at a time, you may also need to mimic what they need to do to help them understand what to do.

61

Strategies to stimulate the appetite?

offer small frequent meals, with multiple food choices

suggest patient refrains from smoking one hour before mealtime

restrict liquid intake during meals

keep environment clean and dry

encourage meals with friends, support system

provide assistance with oral care

position of comfort, pain controlled

62

What is enteral nutrition?

administering nutrients directly into the stomach, may deliver total or supplemental nutrition over a short or long period of time

63

how long should a patient be on a NG tube?

no longer than 4 weeks

64

what kind of tube can be used for a patient with acid reflux?

NI tube

65

G tube (gastrostomy tube) is placed where?

directly into the stomach

66

Which tubes are for long term feeding?

G tube, J tube and PEG tubes

67

How can you check a NG tube after placement

X-ray, tube length and tube marking, measurement of aspirate pH

68

What is a continuous tube feeding?

allows for gradual introduction of the tube feed into the GI tract, requires the use of a feeding pump

69

What is an intermittent feeding?

delivered at regular intervals in equal portions, may use a feeding pump, gravity, or a syringe

70

What is a cyclic feeding?

administering a continuous feeding for a portion of a 24 hour period, may resemble regular meals

71

Total parenteral nutrition is given for

motility or GI disorders, where oral intake is inadequate, where bowel needs to heal.

72

What should be monitored when patient is being given TPN?

glucose

73

What is LDL cholesterol?

(low density lipoprotein) "bad cholesterol", makes up most of your bodys cholesterol. High levels of LDL increase risk for heart disease or stroke.

74

What is HDL cholesterol?

(high density lipoprotein) "good cholesterol", absorbs cholesterol and carries it back to the liver. The liver then flushes it from the body. High levels of HDL cholesterol can lower your risk for heart disease and stroke.

75

decreased hemoglobin

anemia

76

decreased hematocrit

anemia

77

decreased serum albumin

malnutrition, malabsorption, prolonged protein depletion, can indicate impaired wound healing

78

decreased prealbumin

protein depletion, malnutrition

79

decreased transferrin

anemia, protein deficiency

80

increased BUN

starvation, high protein intake, severe dehydration

81

increased creatinine

dehydration

82

decreased creatinine

reduction in total muscle mass, severe malnutrition

83

Carbohydrates: simple sugars and starch sources

Fruits
Vegetables
Grains: rice, pasta, breads, cereals
Dried peas and beans
Milk (lactose)
Sugars: white and brown sugar, honey, molasses, syrup

84

Carbohydrates: simple sugars and starch functions

Provide energy
Spare protein so it can be used for other functions
Prevent ketosis from inefficient fat metabolism

85

Carbohydrates: simple sugars and starch significance

An adequate intake for total fiber is 25 g/day (women) and 38 g/day (men); maximum level of 25% of total calories or less from added sugars.
Low carbohydrate intake can cause ketosis; high simple sugar intake increases the risk for dental caries.

86

Carbohydrates: cellulose and other water soluble fibers sources

Whole wheat flour and wheat bran
Vegetables: cabbage, peas, green beans, wax beans, broccoli, brussel sprouts, cucumber skins, peppers, carrots
Apples

87

Carbohydrates: cellulose and other water soluble fibers functions

Absorb water to increase fecal bulk
Decrease intestinal transit time

88

carbohydrates: cellulose and other water soluble fibers significance

Are nondigestible; therefore, are excreted
Help relieve constipation
North Americans are urged to eat more of all types of fiber.
Excess intake can cause gas, distention, and diarrhea.

89

Carbohydrates: water-soluble fibers sources

Oat bran and oatmeal
Dried peas and beans
Vegetables
Prunes, pears, apples, bananas, oranges, raisins, strawberries

90

Carbohydrates: water-soluble fibers functions

Slow gastric emptying
Lower serum cholesterol level
Delay glucose absorption

91

carbohydrates; water-soluble fibers significance

Help improve glucose tolerance in diabetics

92

Protein Sources

Milk and milk products
Meat, poultry, fish
Eggs
Dried peas and beans
Nuts

93

Protein functions

Tissue growth and repair
Component of body framework: bones, muscles, tendons, blood vessels, skin, hair, nails
Component of body fluids: hormones, enzymes, plasma proteins, neurotransmitters, mucus
Helps regulate fluid balance through oncotic pressure
Helps regulate acid–base balance
Detoxifies harmful substances
Forms antibodies
Transports fat and other substances through the blood
Provides energy when carbohydrate intake is inadequate

94

Protein significance

Experts recommend that we eat less animal protein and more vegetable protein. Protein deficiency is characterized by edema, retarded growth and maturation, muscle wasting, changes in the hair and skin, permanent damage to physical and mental development (in children), diarrhea, malabsorption, numerous secondary nutrient deficiencies, fatty infiltration of the liver, increased risk for infections, and high mortality.
Protein malnutrition occurs secondary to chronic diseases, such as cancer, AIDS, and COPD; it may also result from acute critical illnesses such as trauma and sepsis. It may also be seen in the homeless, the elderly, fad dieters, adults addicted to drugs or alcohol, and people with eating disorders.

95

Fat sources

Butter, oils, margarine, lard, salt pork, salad dressings, mayonnaise, bacon
Whole milk and whole milk products
High-fat meats
Nuts

96

Fat functions

Provides energy
Provides structure
Insulates the body
Cushions internal organs
Necessary for the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins

97

Fat significance

High-fat diets increase the risk for heart disease and obesity and are correlated with an increased risk for colon and breast cancers. Replacing saturated fats in the diet with mono- and polyunsaturated fats greatly reduces the risk of heart disease, atherosclerosis, and stroke.