Module 7 Lab: Respiratory

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1

What is the upper respiratory zone

areas above the larynx

2

What is the lower respiratory zone

areas below the larynx

3

what is the larynx commonly called

voicebox

4

what is the pharynx commonly called.

name the three regions.

throat

nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx

5

Name the two types of cartilage found in the larynx

hyaline (thyroid and cricoid) and elastic (epiglottis)

6

Draw the flow of air from outside air to alveoli.

outside air

nostrils

nasal cavity

pharynx

larynx

trachea

bronchi

bronchioles

alveoli

7

what are the respiratory zones and conducting zones

gas exchange; passageways

alveoli; trachea and bronchi

8

explain how the lobes of the lungs and how they differ in cats

right has three lobes; left has 2.

cats: right has four lobes; left has 3.

9

what nerve stimulates the diaphragm

phrenic

10

name the right and left lobes of the cat

right=anterior, middle,posterior, mediastinal

left=anterior, middle, posterior

11

name the trachea tissue layers

1. psuedostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells

2. connective tissue

3. hyaline cartilage

4. smooth muscle

5. adventitia

12

What is respiration

the gas exchange of CO2 and O2

13

what are the four phases and locations of respiration

1. pulmonary ventilation=air moving in and out of lungs

2. external respiration= gas exchange of lungs/ blood in alveoli

3. transport=gases travel in blood

4. internal respiration= gas exchange of blood/cells in body tissues

14

what and where is the respiratory membrane

what is the tissue type

external respiration gas exchange occurs here.

between alveoli and capillary walls

simple squamous epithelium

15

what is the bronchial tree

branching of brochi

16

List the bronchial tree starting with primary bronchi and ending with alveoli

primary bronchi

secondary bronchi

tertiary bronchi

bronchioles

terminal bronchioles

respiratory bronchioles

alveolar ducts and sacs

alveoli

17

what is important about the pleura of the lungs

allow lungs to expand with chest

negative pressure of the two pleura keep them attached to chest wall

18

what will happen if the pleura of the lungs equalize with atmospheric pressure

pneumothorax and they will collapse (atelectasis)

19

which phase of respiration is the name for breathing

pulmonary ventilation

20

what are the two phases of pulmonary ventilation

inspiration and expiration

21

is inspiration active or passive? what muscles are used during quiet inspiration and forced inspiration?

active

diaphragm + external intercostals (quiet)

scalenes + sternocleidomastoid (forced)

22

what is the volume and pressure relationship that allows inspiration to occur? (diaphragm does what)

The diaphragm pulls down and increases the volume. Decreases the pressure and air flows from the outside into the lungs.

23

is expiration active or passive? what muscles are used during forced expiration?

passive

internal intercostals and abdominals

24

what is the volume and pressure relationship that allows expiration to occur? (diaphragm does what)

The diaphragm pushes up and decreases the volume. The pressure increases and air flows out of the lungs.

25

Name and describe the two respiratory sounds.

bronchial= air moving in large passages such as trachea

vesicular=air filling alveoli

26

What instrument measure respiratory volumes and capacities

spirometer

27

Define obstructive pulmonary diseases and restrictive disoders.

obstructive= increases airway resistance/blockage; asthma

restrictive= decreases actual lung capacity; TB

28

What FEV1/FVC % is good? What does it mean if your % is low

70-85%

obstructive disoder

29

Hyperventilation ___________________________ CO2 which ___________________________________ pH

decreases; increases

30

Hypoventilation ___________________________ CO2 which ___________________________________ pH

increases; decreases

31

what does surfactant do?

decreases surface tension of water. helps alveoli resist shrinking