Test 2 F21

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1

Which structure or compartment is part of the symplast?

the interior of a sieve tube

2

The clade eudicots, which means "true dicots," was named to distinguish them from other dicot species because...

monocots are more closely related to eudicots than dicots are to other dicot lineages, implying that monocots evolved from within dicot diversity

3

Which of the following are important components of long-distance transport process in xylem?
I)the cohesion of water moleculesII)a negative water potentialIII)the active transport of solutesIV)bulk flow from source to sink

I and II only

4

Which of the following are water-conducting cells that are dead at functional maturity?

tracheids and vessel elements

5

Which of the following best describes why water flows into the source end of a sieve tube?

sucrose has been actively transported into the sieve tube, making it hypertonic

6

Which of following ions play the primary role in basic transport processes in plant cells?

H+

7

What is an apical meristem?

a region of undifferentiated cells at the growing tips of a plant shoot that is responsible for the growth of the stem and leaves

8

Which of the following accurately describes the direction phloem sap can flow?

from leaves to roots or roots to leaves

9

Water potential is generally most negative in which of the following parts of a plant?

mesophyll cells of the leaf

10

Looking in the cross-section of a herbaceous dicot stem, vasculature exists within two concentric rings, with xylem interiorly and phloem exteriorly. On the other hand, vascular bundles within a monocot stem cross section are distributed randomly and in a dispersed pattern among other ground tissue. This is most likely related to the fact that...

monocots lack a vascular cambium layer that would continually produce new vasculature in the process of secondary growth

11

Plants first invaded the terrestrial environment about

470 million years ago

12
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Which of the following statements is most consistent with the model of evolutionary relatedness represented in the phylogenetic tree?

Salamanders are a sister group to the group containing lizards, goats, and humans.

13
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In the phylogenetic trees shown, each number represents a unique species of organisms. Which two species are represented as sister species in Tree 2 but are not represented as sister species in Tree 1?

3 and 4

14

Which of the following pairs is the best example of homologous structures?

bones in the bat wing and bones in the human forelimb

15

To apply parsimony to constructing a phylogenetic tree,

choose the tree that represents the fewest evolutionary changes, in either DNADNA sequences or morphology.

16
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Use the following information to answer the question.

In the figure, the letters A-G represent individual species that all descended from a common ancestor. Which of the following groups of these species forms a monophyletic group?

E, F, and G

17

Why do researchers use rRNA in investigations of relationships between taxa that diverged hundreds of millions of years ago?

DNA coding for rRNA changes relatively slowly.

18

The evolution of vascular tissue in plants facilitated which of the following changes?

the ability to grow taller

19

Which of the following factors most likely helped early plants colonize land?

formation of mutualistic associations with fungi

20

Which of the following structures is a modified horizontal shoot growing along the soil surface?

stolon

21

Suppose a flower had normal expression of genes AA and CC and expression of gene BB in all four whorls. Based on the ABCABC hypothesis, what would be the structure of that flower, starting at the outermost whorl?

petal-petal-stamen-stamen

22
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Pressure data, measured from one of the vascular tissue types connecting leaf to root in a 11 m tall tree, is presented in the graph below.

Which of the following is the most appropriate title for this graph?

phloem flow from leaf to root

23

What is the function of proton pumps localized in the plant plasma membrane?

to create a membrane potential

24

The value for ψ in root tissue was found to be -0.15 MPA. Which of the following best describes water flow if the root tissue was placed it in a 0.1 M solution of sucrose (ψ = -0.23 MPa)?

Water would flow from the tissue into the sucrose solution.

25

Ignoring all other factors, what weather conditions would result in the fastest delivery of water and minerals to the leaves of an oak tree?

a warm, dry day

26

The apoplast in plant tissues may include which of the following?

cell walls, extracellular spaces, and vessel elements

27

Heartwood and sapwood consist of

secondary xylem.

28

Which of the following best describes the growth of most plant structures, except for flowers?

indeterminate

29

Which of the following defines the loss of water from the aerial parts of plants?

transpiration

30

What is a consequence of monocot vascular bundles not having a vascular cambium between the xylem and phloem?

Monocots have no secondary growth.

31

As a youngster, you drive a nail in the trunk of a young tree that is 3 meters tall. The nail is about 1.5 meters from the ground. Fifteen years later, you return and discover that the tree has grown to a height of 30 meters. About how many meters above the ground is the nail?

1.5

32

Soil pH is an important factor that influences which of the following?

cation exchange and the chemical form of minerals

33

Which answer best describes how roots acidify the soil solution?

Roots release CO2 and pump H+ into the soil.

34

Humus consists of __________.

decomposing organic material

35

Which elements are most often the limiting nutrients for plant growth?

nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus

36

Which of the following is the most probable cause of a mineral deficiency in a plant after being treated with a fungicide?

Mycorrhizal fungi were killed.

37

How does nitrogen fixation lead to enhanced plant growth?

Fixed nitrogen can be used by plants to produce protein.

38

Unlike mosses, gymnosperm and angiosperm lifespans are dominated by the sporophyte generation, which, unlike the gametophyte, is ____________.

diploid

39

Gymnosperms produce gametes on sporophylls along cones, in which one cone contains mainy sporophylls of a similar type (male or female). Angiosperms tend to produce bisexual stems called flowers with both male and female sporophylls. In flowers, the male sporophyll is called a ___________, and the female sporophyll is called a __________.

stamen; carpel

40

Flowers pollinated by hummingbirds typically have the following characteristics:

vibrant red color, long nectar tubes, not particularly fragrant/odorous to humans

41

Asters (Asteraceae) and euphorbs (Euphorbia) both form composite ______________ that mimic the basic structure of a flower.

inflorescences

42

Which of the following pollinating agents is correctly matched with the type of plant it helps pollinate?

wind–grass flowers

43

Part completeA major long-term problem resulting from excessive irrigation is the _____. See Concept 37.1 (Page)

accumulation of salts in the soil

44

The evolution of seed plants represents a trade-off. In non-seed plants, gametophytes are multicellular, __________ organisms capable of exploiting unique ecological niches. In seed plants, gametophytes are ___________, and usually divide only a few times, but through the protection of their seed coat, they can survive intense and erratic physical conditions and be transported through seed dispersal.

free-living; microscopic

45

Which of the following would most likely use wind-based pollination?

grass in a grassland

46

A poison that inhibits the activity of which of the following would reduce the ability of plants to gain nutrients in the soil through cation exchange?

proton pump

47

Which of the following describes a genetic mechanism of self-incombatibility?

sporophyte stigma with S1S2 genes rejects pollen with S2 or S3 alleles

48

What does the N-P-K ratio on a package of fertilizer indicate?

percentages of three important mineral nutrients

49

Accessory fruit grow out of the ___________ at the flowers base.

receptacle

50

The inorganic nutrient most often lacking in crops is __________.

nitrogen

51

Why are micronutrients needed in only very small amounts?

most micronutrients serve mainly as cofactors of enzymes

52

The body's automatic tendency to maintain a constant and optimal internal environment is termed as ________.

homeostasis

53

Ectodermal tissue is responsible for developing into which adult animal structures?

nervous system, skin

54

In a species showing sporophytic incompatibility, which type(s) of pollen could successfully fertilize an S2S3S2S3 flower?

S1S1 pollen from an S1S1S1S1 flower

55

The Brazil nut tree, Bertholletia excelsa (2n = 34) produces tough-walled fruits, each containing 8-25 seeds (Brazil nuts). When you eat a Brazil nut, which is composed primarily of endosperm, how many chromosomes are in most of the cells you are eating?

51

56

Which of the following best describes double fertilization in flowering plants?

one sperm fertilizes the egg, and a second sperm fertilizes both polar nuclei

57

Ecdysozoans, which includes pirapulids (worm-like worms), tardigrades (water bears), onycophorans (velvet worms), and arthropods (crustaceans, insects, and arachnids), share which defining characteristic?

regular molting of skin

58

Which of the following is necessary for a generative cell in a pollen grain to produce two sperm cells?

a single mitotic division

59

We evolved from which clade of fish?

sarcopterygians, lobe-finned fish

60

What tissue lines most exchange surfaces of multicellular animals?

epithelial tissue

61

Which type of muscle directly helps move food along the digestive tract?

smooth muscle

62

Which of the following is a triploblastic organism that contians a mesodermal tissue layer during development?

seastar