Microbiology Module 2

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1

GPC catalase positive organisms

catalase positive, nonmotile, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, colonies medium sized, circular and entire, smooth, convex, white-to-yellow

2

Staphylococcus aureus

medium to large colonies on SBA, smooth creamy yellow, beta hemolytic; GPC in clusters; slime layer-capsule, peptidoglycan and protein A cell wall, toxins; localized skin infections (folliculitis, furuncles,impetigo), toxin mediated disease (scalded skin, toxic shock (pyrogenic exotoxin C)), systemic disease, opportunistic pathogen

3

Chrom-agar

differentiates between methicillin resistant Staph aureus and susceptible

4

coagulase positive, D-mannose positive

Staphylococcus aureus diagnostic testing

5

mecA gene

gene for methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus

6

Beta lactamase

produced in S. aureus strains that should be considered to all penicillin

7

MSSA

S. aureus green colonies

8

MRSA

S. aureus mauve colonies

9

Cefoxitin disks

used to detect methicillin resistance for S. aureus

10

S. saprophyticus

large glossy smooth convex colonies on SBA, white or yellow-orange, non hemolytic; GPC clusters, catalase positive, coagulase negative, novobiocin resistant, Beta-galactosidase delayed positive, D-mannose negative; pathogen in urine associated with UTI

11

S. epidermidis

large gloosy smooth convex colonies, white or yellow orange, non hemolytic; GPC clusters, catalase positive, coagulase negative, novobiocin susceptible, urease strongly positive, beta-galctosidase delayed positive, D-mannose delayed positive; mostly contaminant; nosocomial infections, bacteremia assocaited with indwelling catheters

12

S. intermedius, pseudintermedius, and delphini

normal microbiota of dogs, skin infections in dogs, opportunistic in humans due to bite or scratch wounds

13

Micrococcus sp.

small to medium sized colonies, opaque and convex, non hemolytic, white, tan, yellow, orange or pink; GPCs in tetrads, catalase positive, microdase positive; normal microbiota but can cause opportunistic infections; includes Micrococcus, Kocuria, Kytococcus, and Dermacoccus; associated with endocarditis, sepsis, skin infections, and foreign-body related infections

14

Auritidibacter ignavus

associated with otitis externa

15

Rothia mucilabinosa

associated with bacteremia, endocarditis, FBRIs, pneumonia, peritonitis, necrotizing-fascitis

16

Alloiococcus otitis

otitis externa, endocarditis and endopthalmitis

17

D zone test (modified Kirby-Bauer)

determines the inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus species; clindamycin and erythromycin placed 15 mm apart on Mueller-Hinton agar; inducible clindamycin resistance in presence of erythromycin demonstrates D zone pattern indicating alternative therapy

18

Streptococcus and Enterococcus

catalase negative, GPCs singly or in pairs or chains, facultatively anaerobic, varying hemolytic patterns, non-motile; colonies small to medium, circular and entire, transparent to off white or gray

19

alpha hemolysis

partial lysis of red blood cells; green zone around colonies

20

beta hemolysis

complete lysis of RBCs, yellow halo around colonies, Streptolysin O and Streptolysin S

21

Streptolysin O

oxygen labile and immunogenic hemolysis factor

22

Streptolysin S

oxygen stable and non-immunogenic hemolysis factor

23

gamma hemolysis

no hemolysis

24

Lancefield

Streptococcus classification based on the type of carbohydrate present on the cell wall

25

Streptococcus pyogenes

beta-hemolytic streptococcus; virulence: M protein, hyaluronic acid capsule, streptokinase, F protein, hyaluronidase, exotoxins; bacterial pharyngitis, skin infections, scarlet fever, post-streptococcal diseases (Rheumatic fever and glomerulonephritis)

26

Streptococcus agalactiae

beta-hemolytic streptococcus; streptococcal infection associated with neonates (early onset within days, late onset 1 week to 3 months); septicemia, pneumonia, and meningitis in newborns

27

Streptococcus pneumoniae

alpha-hemolytic streptococcus, gram positive diplococci, lancet shaped; virulence: polysaccharide capsule, phosphorylcholine, pneumolysin; most infections cause pneumonia and meningitis with or without bacteremia; bacterial pneumonia, meningitis, and otitis media

28

Enterococcus spp.

gamma-hemolytic streptococcus, single or in chains; urinary tract infections, bacteremia, and intraabdominal infections; not as virulent, aggregation substance, capsular polysaccharides, surface carbohydrates and lipoteichoic acid, gelatinase, superoxide, peptide inhibitors, intrinsic antibiotic resistance

29

viridans streptococci

alpha and non-hemolytic strep species; opportunistic, GI and genitourinary tracts colonized

30

M protein

S. pyogenes virulence factor: antiphagocytic, complement modulator

31

hyaluronic acid capsule

S. pyogenes virulence factor: inhibits phagocytosis

32

F protein

S. pyogenes virulence factor: mediated epithelial cell attachment

33

Streptococcal pyogenic exotoxins

S. pyogenes virulence factor: fever inducing toxins that production of rash or multisystem effects

34

polysaccharide capsule

S. pneumoniae virulence factor: inhibits phagocytosis

35

Phosphorylcholine

S. pneumoniae virulence factor: adherence to cell receptors

36

pneumolysin

S. pneumoniae virulence factor: produces holes in cell membranes causing detrimental effects and lysis of cells

37

Abiotrophia spp.

GPC in chains, round to oval; require pyridoxal (vitamin B6) and will not grow on blood or chocolate agar

38

latex agglutination, ELISA, nucleic acid

three direct detection methods to Streptococcus species

39

CAMP = and PYR +

indirect detection methods for S. pyogenes

40

CAMP + PYR =

indirect detection methods for S. agalactiae

41

optochin susceptible

indirect detection methods for S. pneumoniae

42

optochin resistant

indirect detection methods for Streptococci alpha viridans

43

Todd-Hewitt broth or CHROMagar

media used for Strep B detection from a genital specimen

44

bile esculin

media for Enterococci and group D streptococci

45

facultative anaerobes

Streptococci preferring 5-10% CO2 enriched environment

46

anaerobic environment

enhances appearance of Beta hemolytic Strep, stabbing agar for S. pyogenes

47

rheumatic fever and acute glomerulonephritis

poststreptococcal infections; serodiagnostics (ASO, DNase B, streptokinase, and hyaluronidase) used to demonstrate prior strep infection

48

Bacillus

large gram positive bacilli, spore-forming rods, catalase positive, aerobic or facultative anaerobic, nonhemolytic, colonies dry and irregular, ground glass "Medusa head", opportunistic (immunocompromised), low virulence, ubiquitous, sensitive to penicillin; traumatic introduction, ingestion, inhalation, injfection

49

B. anthracis

GPR; ground glass appearance, Medusa head; produce endospores, highly resistant to heat and desiccation; endospores dormant until suitable environment found for growth; cutaneous or GI (ingested), inhaled, or injected

50

Bacillus anthracis

virulence factors include plasmid-borne toxins (lethal, edema, and protective antigen), loss of toxin encoding plasma

51

Bacillus cereus

group of related organisms widely distributed within the soil, considered opportunistic, often foodborne illness; eye infection, infections due to contaminated drugs; GI virulence: hemolysis BL, nonhemolytic enterotoxin, cytotoxin K, cereulide toxin

52

Bacillus thuringiensis

harbors cereulide enterotoxin, associated with occupational exposure to insecticides and pesticides, associated with wounds, burns, pulmonary and ocular infections

53

Bacillus subtilis

most environmental contaminants, ID not recommended unless isolated in large numbers from sterile body site

54

molecular and antigen-based

biochemical identification of Bacillus

55

Bacillus

uses blood, chocolate, and CNA, phenylethyl alcohol, polymyxin-lysozyme-EDTA-thallous acetate (PLET), bicarbonate agar, mannitol-egg yolk-polymyxin, polymyxin-egg yolk-mannitol-bromothymol blue agar, and specified chromogenic media

56

polymyxin-lysozyme-EDTA-thallous acetate (PLET)

selection and isolation from contaminated specimens

57

bicarbonate agar

induces capsule formation in B. anthracis

58

B. cereus

isolated with media that contains different mixtures of egg yolks, mannitol and polymyxin B

59

35 Celsius, ambient air or 5% CO2

optimal growth conditions for Bacillus

60

heat shock treatment

effective at killing vegetative cells and retaining spores

61

size of cell, sporulation, biochemical analysis

differentiation of Bacillus, Brevibacillus, and Paenibacillus

62

lecithinase

production measured as biochemical analysis to differentiate Bacillus, Brevibacillus, and Paenibacillus

63

toxin

serodiagnosis of B. cereus

64

antibodies

serodiagnosis of B. anthracis

65

ciprofloxacin with aminoglycoside

chemoprophylaxis recommended for severe cases of anthrax

66

ciprofloxacin or doxycycline

recommended treatment for cutaneous or uncomplicated cases of anthrax

67

penicillin

most strains of B. anthracis are susceptible

68

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

respiratory species and exudates from skin lesions

69

Listeria monocytogenes

widely distributed in nature, contaminated food including milks, raw vegetables, cheese, and meats, vertical transmission trans-placentally or through infected birth canal

70

C. diphtheriae

pharyngitis with exudative membrane; toxin production

71

C. jeikeium

septicemia, skin infections, and infections in those who are immunocompromised

72

C. ulcerans

bovine mastitis; associated with diphtheria-like sore throat

73

C. urealyticum

associated with urinary tract infections and wound infections in immunocompromised

74

C. pseudotuberculosis

zoonotic infection; suppurative granulomatous lymphadenitis

75

C. diphtheriae

toxin producing, not all; contain bacteriophage that harbors tox gene; blocks protein synthesis resulting in cell death, formation of pseudo-membrane in oral/nasopharynx, toxin spreads leading to systemic organ damage, and may lead to cardiac arrest

76

Corynebacterium and Listeria

GPR, catalase positive, non-acid fast, non spore forming, growth on SBA, some don't grow on chocolate, lipophilic species grow larger with 1% Tween 80

77

Coryneform bacteria

short or slightly curved GPR with rounded ends, rudimentary branching, singly or parallel palisades, pairs of cells in V or L form Chinese characters

78

L. monocytogenes

short, gram positive rods appearing in chains similar to strep

79

C. diphtheriae

nucleic acid ribotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, multi-locus sequence typing, and various PCR amplification tests

80

L. monocytogenes

nucleic acid detection on CSF and tissue samples, detection in dairy products

81

C. diphtheriae

selective and differential media should be used to identify; susceptible to fosfomycin, producing brown halo; cystine-tellurite and modified tinsdale

82

cystine-tellurite blood agar

cystine enhanced growth of fastidious organisms, potassium tellurite inhibits normal flora

83

modified tinsdale agar (TIN)

organisms are differentiated, based on conversion of tellurite to tellurium, a change in color from grey to black

84

toxin detection methods

includes guinea pig lethality test, immunodiffusion test, tissue culture cell test and neutralization of cytopathic effect, and enzyme immunoassays

85

hyperimmune antiserum, diphtheriae antitoxin, IM penicillin, oral erythromycin

treatments for C. diphtheriae

86

L. monocytogenes

listeriosis systemic disease (stillbirth, neonatal death, meningitis, bacteremia, encephalitis, and endocarditis) and localized infections (conjunctivitis, skin infections, lymphadenitis, GI foodborne outbreaks)

87

Listeriolysin O, phospholipases, and bacterial surface protein-Act A

L. monocytogenes virulence factors

88

listeriolysin O

pore forming toxin of L. monocytogenes that reduces T cell responsiveness and enables orgnaism to escape the phagosome and avoid intracellular killing entering bloodstream

89

phospholipases

virulence factor of L. monocytogenes that assist in process of escaping phagosome

90

bacterial surface protein (Act A)

virulence factor of L. monocytogenes that induces host cell actin polymerization and promotes cell-to-cell spread of teh organism allowing bacteria to eventually reach the central nervous system or placenta

91

cold enrichment nutrient broth

used to enhance recovery of L. monocytogenes

92

motility

presumptive identity of L. monocytogenes

93

umbrella-shaped pattern

L. monocytogenes motility result on semisolid agar

94

end over end tumbling

direct wet mount motility of L. monocytogenes

95

L. monocytogenes

motile, catalase positive, ferments glucose, V-P positive, esculin positive, positive CAMP, narrow zone Beta hemolysis