Bones and Skeletal Tissue

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Bones
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1

Which type of cartilage is most plentiful in the adult body?

Hyaline Cartilage

2

Which two body structures contain flexible elastic cartilage?

The epiglottis and external ear cartilage

3

Cartilage grows by intestinal growth. What does that mean?

Intestinal growth is growth from within

4

What is the functional relationship between skeletal muscles and bones?

Skeletal muscles use the bones as levers to cause movement in the body and its parts

5

List two types of substances stored in bone and state where is each is stored?

Bone matrix stores minerals (calcium and phosphate). Bone marrow cavities serve as sites for triglyceride (fat) storage.

6

What are the components of the axial skeleton?

The components of the axial skeleton are the skull, the vertebral column, and the rib cage

7

Contrast the general function of the axial skeleton to that of the appendicular skeleton.

The major function of the axial skeleton is to establish the long axis of the body and to protect structures that is encloses. The general function of the appendicular skeleton is to allow us mobility for propulsion and manipulation of our environment.

8

What bone class do the ribs and skull bones fall into?

The ribs and skull bones are flat bones.

9
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In the figure, name the parts of the bone

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10

What would happen to a bone if you removed all the inorganic components (for example, by soaking it in vinegar for several days)? Would it be able to resist compression? Tension?

Because acidic vinegar soaks away a bone's mineral salts, the bone becomes flexible and bends too easily to support weight, so it would not be good at resisting compression. However, its organic components, particularly collagen, would allow it to resist tension.

11

Label the medullary cavity and indicate the type of marrow found in the cavity. Label the compact bone. Label the periosteum and endosteum

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12

Which cell has a ruffled border and acts to break down bone matrix? Which organelle would be the likely source of the enzyme that can digest bone matrix?

The osteoclast fits this description. The lysosomes would contain the matrix-digesting enzymes.

13

Bones don't begin with bone tissue. What do they begin with?

Bones begin as fibrous membranes or hyaline cartilages

14

When describing endochondral ossification, some say "bone chases cartilage". What does that mean?

The cartilage model grows, then breaks down and is replaced by bone.

15

Where is the primary ossification center located in a long bone? Where is (are) the secondary ossification center(s) located?

The primary ossification center is in a long bone is in the center of the shaft. The secondary ossification centers are in the epiphyses (bone ends)

16

As long as bone grows in length, what is happening in the hypertrophic zone of the epiphseal plate?

The chondrocytes are enlarging and their lacunae are breaking down and leaving holes in the cartilage matrix.

17

Which stimulus -PTH (a hormone) or mechanical forces acting on the skeleton - is more important in maintaining homeostatic blood calcium levels?

Parathyroid hormone maintains blood calcium levels.

18

How do bone growth and bone remodeling differ?

Bone growth increases bone mass, as during childhood or when exceptional stress is placed on the bones. Bone remodeling follows bone growth to maintain the proper proportions of the bone considering stresses placed upon it.

19

If osteoclasts in a long bone are more active than osteoblasts, how will bone mass change?

If bone-destroying cells (osteoclasts) are more active than bone-forming cells (osteoblasts), bone mass will decrease.

20

Despite daily exercise, the bones of astronauts in the International Space Station get thinner and weaker during their time in space. Why does this occur?

The bones of astronauts get thinner and weaker because they are deprived of the normal loading stresses that are p;laced on bones by gravity. Exercise that puts more stress on bones during space flight helps to some extent but cannot substitute for gravity.

21

How does an open fracture differ from a closed fracture?

In a open fracture, the bone ends are exposed to the external environment. In a closed fracture, the bone ends do not penetrate the external boundary of the skin.

22

Which bone disorder is characterized by excessive deposit of weak, poorly mineralized bone?

Paget's disease is characterized by excessive deposits of weak, poorly maintained bone.

23

What are three measures that may help to maintain healthy bone density?

Sufficient vitamin D, calcium, and wight bearing exercise all help to maintain healthy bone density.

24

What name is given to "adult rickets"?

Adult rickets is called osteomalacia

25

What is a function of the skeletal system?

support, hematopoietic site, storage, providing levers for muscle activity

26

Sites of hematopiesis include?

red marrow of spongy bone, the heads of femur and humerus in adults, medullary cavities in bones of infants

27

The organic portion of matrix is important in providing?

tensile strength, ability to resist stretch, flexibility

28

Bone remodeling in adults is regulated and directed mainly by?

mechanical stress and PTH

29

Where within the epiphyseal plate are the dividing cartilage cells located?

between the resting zone and the hypertrophic zone

30

Wolff's law is concerned with?

the shape of a bone being determined by mechanical stresses being put on it

31

Formation of the bony callus in fracture repair is followed by?

bone remodeling

32

The fracture type in which the bone ends are incompletely separated is?

greenstick

33

The disorder in which bones are porous and thin but bone composition is normal

osteoporosis

34

Describe the proper sequence the events of endochondral ossification in a large bone.

The steps to the endochodral ossification in a long bone are

1. a bone collar forms around the diaphysis of the hyaline cartilage model

2. cartilage in the center of the diaphysis calcifies and then develops cavities

3. the periosteal bud invades the internal cavities and spongy bone forms

4. the diaphysis elongates and a medullary cavity forms, secondary ossification centers appear in the epiphyses

5. the epiphyses ossify

35

A bone with approximately the same width, length and height is most likely?

a short bone

36

Which is a function of the skeletal system?

support, hematopoietic site, storage, providing levers for muscle activity

37

The shaft of a bone is properly called the

diaphysis

38

an osteon has

a central canal carrying blood vessels, concentric lamellae, osteocytes in lacunae, canaliculi that connect lacunae to the central canal

39

the flat bones of the skull develop from

fibrous connective tissue

40

the remodeling of bone is a function of which cells

osteoblasts and osteoclasts

41

bone remodeling in adults is regulated and directed maily by

mechanical stress, PTH

42

What bones are the keystone bones of the facial skeleton?

Maxillae

43

What bone forms the bulk of the orbit floor, and what sense organ is found in the orbit of the living person?

The maxillae form the bulk of the orbit floor. The eye is housed in the orbit.

44

Sutures of the skull

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45

Bones of the skull

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46

Nathan was vigorously exercising the only joints in the skull that are freely movable. What would you guess he was doing?

Eating or talking, because the only freely movable joints in the skull are the temporomandibular joints of the jaw.

47

Suppose you work in the coroner's office. The skeleton of a potential murder victim has arrived. It has a fractured hyoid bone. What is the likely cause of death?

The hyoid bone is in the neck. so a fractured hyoid bone suggest death by strangulation.

48

You have learned about two different processes of bone formation in the embryo. Name the process that leads to formation of most of the skull bones. Name the embryonic connective tissue that is converted to bone during this process.

Most of the skull bones are formed by intramembraneous ossicication in which bone is formed from embryonic tissue called mesenchyme, which contains mesenchymal cells.

49

Besides the spinal curvatures, which skeletal elements help to make the vertebral column flexible?

Fibrocartilage discs contribute to the flexibility of the vertebral column.

50

How can you distinguish a lumbar vertebra from a thoracic vertebra?

A lumbar vertebra is heavier and its massive body is kidney shaped. It's spinous processes are short and project directly back. A thoracic vertebral body is generally heart shaped, it's spinous process is long, sharp, and points downward and its transverse processes have facts for articulationg with the ribs.

51

Vertebral column 5 regions

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52

How does a true rib differ from a false rib?

A true rib connects to the sternum by it's own costal cartilage. A false rib connects to the sternum via costal cartilages of other ribs or not at all

53

What does the tubercle of a rib articulate with?

The tubercle of a rib articulates with the costal facet of the transverse process of the thoracic vertebra that has the same number as the rib

54

Besides the ribs and sternum, there is a third group of bones making up the thoracic cage, what is it?

Thoracic vertebra

55

What two bones construct each pectoral girdle?

Scapula and Clavicle

56

Where is the single point of attachment of the pectoral girdle to the axial skeleton?

The pectoral girdle attaches tot he sternal manubrium of the axial skeleton via the medial end of its clavicle.

57

What is the major shortcomings of the flexibility allowed by the shoulder joint?

A consequence of its flexibility is that it is easily dislocated.

58

5 joints of the shoulder

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59

Which bones play the major role in forming the elbow joint?

Ulna and the humerus form the elbow joint.

60

Which bones of the upper limb have a styloid process?

Ulna and radius each have a styloid process distally.

61

Where are the carpals found and how would you classify them based on their shape?

Carpals are found in the proximal region of the palm. They are classified as short bones.

62

The ilium and pubis help to form the hip bone. What other bone is involved in forming the hip bone?

Ischium

63

The pelvic girdle is a heavy, strong girdle. How does its structure reflect its function?

The pelvic girdle receives the weight of the upper body and transmits that weight to the lower limbs.

64

3 regions of the hip bone and the bone that articulates with this socket?

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65

What lower limb bone is the 2nd largest bone in the body?

Tibia

66

Bones of the leg

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67

Which of the following sites is a site of muscle attachment?

Greater trochanter, lesser trochanter, fluteal tuberosity

68

Besides supporting weight, what is the major functions of the arches of the foot?

Save energy during locomotion

69

What are the two largest tarsal bones in each foot, and which one forms the heel of the foot?

Talus and the calcaneus

Calcaneus forms the heel

70

Connected by the coronal suture

frontal

parietal

71

keystone bone of cranium

sphenoid

72

keystone bone of the face

maxillary

73

form the hard palate

maxillary

palatine

74

allows the spinal cord to pass

occipital

75

forms the chin

mandible

76

contain paranasal sinuses

ethmoid

frontal

maxillary

sphenoid

77

contains mastoid sinuses

temporal

78

bone of the axial skeleton to which the pectoral girdle attaches

sternum

79

markings include glenoid cavity and acromion

scapula

80

features include the ala, crest, and greater sciatic notch

pubis

81

doubly curved; acts as a shoulder strut

clavicle

82

hip bone that articulates with the axial skeleton

ilium

83

the "sit-down" bone

ischium

84

anteriormost bone of the pelvic girdle

pubis

85

part of the vertebral column

sacrum

86

articulates with the acetabulum and the tibia

femur

87

forms the lateral aspect of the ankle

fibula

88

bone that "carries" the hand

radius

89

the wrist bones

carpals

90

end shaped like a monkey wrench

ulna

91

articulates with the capitulum of the humerus

radius

92

largest bone of this "group" is the calcaneus

tarsals

93

Which vertebral curvatures are primary and which are secondary curvatures? Why are they called primary and secondary?

Thoracic and Sacral curvatures are called primary because they are present at birth

Cervical and lumbar curvatures are called secondary because they develop after birth.

94

What is the function of the intervertebral discs?

Act as shock absorbers and provide flexibility to the spine allowing it to flex and extend.

95

Which ribs are floating ribs and why are they called that?

Rib pairs 11 and 12 are floating ribs because they are not attached to the sternum anteriorly

96

List 3 important differences between the male and female pelvis

1. the female pelvic inlet and outlet are wider

2. the female pelvis is wider, shallower, and lighter

3. the female ischial spines are farther apart

97

Cranial Bones

Frontal Bone : Coronal suture

Parietal Bones: Sagittal suture, Squamous suture

Temporal Bones: External Auditory Meatus; Mastoid Process; Styloid Process; Zygomatic Process

Occipital Bone: Foreman Magnum; Lambdoid suture;

Ethmoid Bone: Perpendicular plate; Crista galli; superior and middle nasal concha; Cribiform plate

Sphenoid Bone: Sella turcica

98

Frontal Bone

Coronal suture

99

Parietal Bones

Sagittal suture

Squamous suture

100

Temporal Bones

External Auditory Meatus

Mastoid Process

Styloid Process

Zygomatic Process

101

Occipital Bone

Foreman Magnum

Lambdoid suture

102

Ethmoid Bone

Perpendicular plate

Crista galli

superior and middle nasal concha

Cribform plate

103

Sphenoid Bone

Sella turcica

104

Facial Bones:

Lacrimal Bones

Nasal Bones

Zygomatic Bones

Vomer

Maxilla

Palatine Bone

Mandible

Inferior Nasal Concha

Hyoid Bone

105

Cervical Vertebra (1-7)

Transverse Process with Transverse foramen; Spinous process (bifid); Body (except 1 &2 shallow, small, oval); superior articulation facets face superior, while inferior articulation facets face inferior

106

Atlas (C1)

No Body; No spinous process

107

Axis (C2)

Dens (instead of Body)

108

Thoracic vertebra (1-12)

Transverse Processes (1-10 with facet to articulate rib); Spinous process angles inferiorly; Body is heart shaped (demifacets on body articulate with rib head); superior articulation facets face ventral, while posterior articulation facets face dorsal

109

Lumbar Vertebra (1-5)

Thick, oval Body; Spinous process is hatchet shaped; inferior/superior articulation facets face laterally (like clapping hands)

110

Sacral Vertebra (1-5)

fuse between 15-25 yrs. Old; 4 pair pelvic foramina; dorsal spinous processes fused into ‘median sacral crest’; sacral side part of sacroiliac joint

111

Coccyx

4-5 fuse at 20-30 yrs. Old; can be fractured

112

Thoracic Cage:

Ribs

Sternum: Manubrium; Body; Xiphoid process; Sternal angle

113

Pectoral Girdle

Clavicle

Scapula: Glenoid (Glenohumoral joint) fossa; Spine; Acromion; Coracoid process

114

Arm:

Humerus: Head; Greater Tubercle; Lesser Tubercle; Deltoid tuberosity; Surgical Neck; Trochlea; Capitulum; Olecranon fossa

Radius: Head; Neck

Ulna: Olecranon process

115

Wrist / Hand

Carpals: Triquetrum; Lunate; Scaphoid; Trapezoid; Trapezium; Capitate; Hamate; Pisiform

Metacarpals: Numbered with Roman Numerals I through V [ I (1); II (2); III (3); IV (4); and V (5)] starting at the Thumb

Phalanges: Proximal Numbered with Roman Numerals I through V; Middle numbered Roman Numerals II through V (because the Thumb does not have a middle phalynx); Distal is numbered Roman Numerals I through V.

116

Pelvic Gridle: Acetabulum

Ilium: Iliac crest; Sacroiliac joint

Ischium: Ischial tuberosity

Pubis: Pubic symphysis

117

Leg:

Femur: Head; Neck; Greater Trochanter; Lesser Trochanter; fovea

Tibia: Tibial tuberosity; Medial malleolus

Fibula: Lateral malleolus

Patella

118

Foot:

Tarsals: Calcaneus; Talus; Navicular

Metatarsals: Numbered with Roman Numerals I through V [ I (1); II (2); III (3); IV (4); and V (5)] starting at the Big Toe

Phalanges: Proximal Numbered with Roman Numerals I through V; Middle numbered Roman Numerals II through V (because the Big Toe does not have a middle phalynx); Distal is numbered Roman Numerals I through V.

119

Cranium

1 Frontal

2 Parietal

2 Temporal

1 Occipital

1 Sphenoid

1 Ethmoid

120

Facial

1 Mandible

2 Maxilla

2 Palatine

2 Zygomatic

2 Nasal

2 Lacrimal

1 Vomer

2 Inferior nasal conchae

121

Inner Ear

2 Malleus

2 Incus

2 Stapes

122

Throat

Hyoid

123

Thorax

1 Sternum

24 Ribs

124

Spine

7 Cervical vertebrae

12 Thoracic vertebrae

5 Lumbar vertebae

1 Sacrum

1 Coccyx

125

Pelvis

2 Hip bone

126

Arm

2 Humerus

2 Radius

2 Ulna

127

Shoulder

2 Clavicle

2 Scapula

128

Carpal (Wrist)

2 Scaphoid

2 Lunate

2 Triquetrum

2 Pisiform

2 Trapezium

2 Trapezoid

2 Capitate

2 Hamate

129

Hand

10 Metacarpal

130

Fingers/Toes

20 Proximal phalanges

16 Intermediate phalanges

20 Distal phalanges

131

Leg

2 Femur

2 Tibia

2 Fibula

2 Patella

132

Tarsal (Ankle)

2 Calcaneus

2 Talus

2 Navicular

2 Medial cuneiform

2 Intermediate cuneiform

2 Lateral cuneiform

2 Cuboid

133

Foot

10 Metatarsal