Fundamentals of Nursing: Sexuality Flashcards


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1

biological sex

term used to denote chromosomal sexual developmentā€”male (XY) or female (XX)

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Cisgender

gender identity or role performance that matches society's expectations based on biological sex

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gender identity

Internal feelings of maleness or femaleness or other

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gender nonconformity

behaving and appearing in ways that are considered atypical for a person's biological sex

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Transgender

Inclusive term used to describe those who feel that the sex assigned to them at birth incompletely describes or fails to describe them

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Transsexual

A person of a certain biological sex with the feelings of the opposite sex

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Intersex

People whose reproductive or sexual anatomy does not fit the typical definition of male or female

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gender fluid

A person whose gender identification and behaviors shift from time to time, whether within or outside of societal, gender-based expectations.

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gender binary

male or female identification

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sexual orientation is:

Based on the gender of the person one is sexually attracted to

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heterosexual

attracted to the opposite sex

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homosexual

attracted to the same sex

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Bisexual

attracted to both sexes

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Transsexual

A person who lives as a member of a gender that differs from the sex/gender assigned at birth

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Asexual

Lacks romantic or sexual attraction

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Questioning

Not sure of his/her sexual orientation

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Causes of Menstrual Cycle Irregularities

- Pregnancy or breast-feeding
- Eating disorders, extreme weight loss, extreme exercise
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)
- Premature ovarian failure
- Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
- Uterine fibroids

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Factors that affect sexuality are:

- Development
- Culture
- Religion
- Ethics
- Lifestyle
- Menstruation

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Forms of sexual stimulation

- Self stimulation
- Sexual intercourse
- Oral-genital stimulation
- Abstinence

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Voyeurism

achievement of sexual arousal by looking at the body of someone other than one's sexual partner

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Sadism

the practice of gaining sexual pleasure while inflicting abuse on another person

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Masochism

gaining sexual pleasure from the humiliation of being abused

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Sadomasochism

practicing sadism and masochism together. It might involve being tied up, biting, hitting, spanking, whipping, pinching, and other activities

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Pedophilia

the practice of adults gaining sexual fulfillment by performing sexual acts with children

* Pedophilia is wrong, illegal, and maladaptive in all cases.

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Infancy sexuality (Birth to 18 months)

- Given gender assignment
- Needs affection and tactile stimulation
- Gradually differentiates self from others
- Self-manipulation of genitals is normal behavior

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toddler sexuality (Age 1-3)

- Bowel/bladder control
- Both sexes enjoy fondling genitals
- Able to identify own gender
- Develops vocabulary related to anatomy

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preschooler sexuality (Age 4-6)

- Becomes increasingly aware of self
- Explores the body of self and others
- Masturbates
- Gender identity is formed

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school aged sexuality (Age 6-10)

- Attachment to parent of opposite sex
- Same-sex friends
- Curiosity about sex and sharing fears
- Increasing self-awareness

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Preadolescence sexuality (Age 10-13)

- Puberty begins for most boys and girls with development of secondary sex characteristics
- Menarche takes place
- May test behavioral limits

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adolescence sexuality (Age 13-19)

- Primary and secondary sex characteristics develop
- Sexual fantasies are common
- Masturbation is common
- May begin to partake in sexual activity ranging from light to heavy petting to full genital intercourse
- May experiment with same-sex relationships
- At risk for pregnancy and std's
- Gender expression and identification is often solidified during adolescence

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Young adulthood sexuality (Age 20-35)

- Premarital sex is common
- Knowledge regarding sexual response and activity increases pleasure of relationship
- May experiment with various sexual expressions
- Develops own value system and respects values of other people
- Many couples share financial responsibilities as well as household tasks

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Adulthood Sexuality (Age 35-55)

- Bodily changes as a result of menopause
- Couples focus on quality rather than quantity of sexual experiences
- Divorce is common
- Grown children begin their own lives and sexual experiences
- Sexual satisfaction may actually increase because of loss of fear of pregnancy

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Late adulthood sexuality (Age 55 and older)

- Orgasms may become shorter and less intense in men and women
- Vaginal secretions decrease, and period of resolution in men lengthens
- May feel need to conform to stereotypes regarding the aging process, and cease sexual activity
- Fear of loss of sexual abilities

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Sexual response cycle is:

The sequence of physiological events that occur when a person becomes sexually aroused

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Four/Five sexual stage responses:

1) Desire
2) Excitement
3) Plateau
4) Orgasm
5) Resolution

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Sexual dysfunction is:

1) Desire
2) Excitement
3) Plateau
4) Orgasm
5) Resolution

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Male Sexual Dysfunction

-Erectile dysfunction (impotence)
-Premature ejaculation
-Delayed ejaculation

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Female Sexual Dysfunction

-Inhibited sexual desire
-Dyspareunia (Painful intercourse)
-Vaginismus (rare condition in which the vaginal opening closes tightly and prevents penile penetration)
-Vulvodynia (a chronic vulvar discomfort or pain characterized by burning, stinging, irritation, or rawness of the female genitalia that interferes with sexual activity)

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General Levels of Sexual History

Level 1: part of the comprehensive health history, obtained by a nurse

Level 2: sexual history, obtained by a nurse trained in sexuality

Level 3: sexual problem history, obtained by a sex therapist

Level 4: psychiatric/psychosocial history, obtained by a psychiatric nurse clinician

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Obtaining Sexual Information

Description of the problem

Onset and cause of the problem

Past attempts at resolution

Goals of the patient

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The BETTER Model Acronym

BRING up the topic of sexuality.

EXPLAIN that you are concerned with all aspects of patients' lives affected by disease.

TELL patients that sexual dysfunction can happen and that you will address their concerns.

TIMING is important to address sexuality with each visit.

EDUCATE patients about the side effects of their treatments and that side effects may be temporary.

RECORD your assessment and interventions in patients' medical records

42

Nursing Diagnoses related to sexual health include:

- Activity intolerance
- Impaired physical mobility
- Fear
- Chronic pain
- Chronic low self esteem
- Self-care deficits
- Ineffective sexuality pattern/Sexual dysfunction

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Sexual harassment is:

All unwelcome or unwanted advances; including sexual advances or unwanted sexual attention, whether between person(s) of opposite or same sex.

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quid pro quo

something given in exchange or return for something else

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environmental sexual harassment

- sex- or gender-based behaviors create a hostile, intimidating environment that hurts a person's work performance, classroom performance, or general sense of well-being