Radiologic science for technologists
What is the atomic number? (6)
The atomic number is symbolized by the letter Z
An atom is the smallest particle that has all the properties of an element. (1)
what are the fundamental particles of an atom?
The fundamental particles of an atom are the electron, the proton, and the neutron. (3)
What are the charge
Electron : Location : Shell Charge: -1
Proton: Location: Nucleus Charge: +1
Neutron: Location: Nucleus Charge 0
What are the mass of those fundamental particles? (5)
Electron : 0.000549 or 9109 * 10-31
Proton: 1.00728 0r 1673*10-27
Neutron: 1.00867 or 1675 * 10-27
Structure of atoms and Electron configuration (arrangements)
The first shell holds 2 electrons
The second shell holds 8 electrons
The Third shell holds 8 electrons
How can calculate the number of electrons in a shell ( orbit)?
2n exponent 2
Where n is the shell number.
What is the principal quantum number?
The quantum number is n
What is the atomic mass number?
An atomic mass number is a whole number that equal to the number of nucleons in the atom
The strength of attachment of an electron to the nucleus.
Difference between Centripetal and Centrifugal force?
Centripetal is the force that keeps an electron in orbit. Unlike Centrifugal flying out from the center force.
Binding energy is Centripetal.
Definition of Isotopes
Atoms that have the same atomic number but different atomic mass numbers
1) Atomic nuclei that have the same atomic mass number but different atomic numbers.
2) Atoms that have the same number of neutrons but different numbers of protons are isotones.
3) Isomers have the same atomic number and the same atomic mass number.
What is the smallest particle of an element?
The smallest particle of an element is an atom.
What is the smallest particle of a compound?
The smallest particle of a compound is a molecule
Radioactive decay results in the emission of alpha particles, beta particles, and usually gamma rays.
What is the definition of Radioactivity?
Radioactivity is the spontaneous emission of particles and energy in order to become stable.
The radioactive half-life of the isotope.
The time required for a quantity of any radioactivity to be reduced to one-half its original value.
Half-life=1 tenth life
Explain particulate radiation
Particulate radiation are: Alpha particle and Beta particle
Both are associates with Radioactive decay or Radiation.
Explain Alpha particules
An Alpha particle is a helium nucleus that contains two protons and two neutrons
Explain Beta particle
A beta particle is an electron emitted from the nucleus of a radioactive atom
Beta particle also called beta ray or beta radiation
Explain electromagnetic radiation
Electromagnetic radiation is the most important for our purposes because is the type of radiation that is used in x-ray imaging.
Electromagnetic travel in waves. That waves are called Sine wave
X-ray and Gamma-ray are electromagnetic
Exp of electromagnetic energy are microwave, radio wave, visible light, and infrared.
Explain similarities and differences between gamma-ray and x-ray
Differences: Gamma-rays come from the nucleus. Unlike x-rays come the electron cloud
Similarities: Gamma rays and x-rays are often called Photons
X-ray and Gamma rays exist at the speed of light (c=3*108 m/s)
Explain similarities and differences between electron and beta particles
Differences: Beta particles originate in the nuclei of radioactive. Unlike electron exist in shells outside the nuclei of all atoms.b
Similarities: Beta particles and electrons are the same mass and are considered to be anti-metter.
What is the velocity of all electromagnetic radiation?
is 3*108 m/s
Photons are energy disturbances that move through space at the speed of light
Photons have no mass