Fundamentals of Nursing: Activity Flashcards


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1

The Skeletal System is:

The framework of bones, the joints between them, and cartilage that protects our organs and allows us to move

2

Skeletal System Functions include:

- Supporting the soft tissues of the body (maintains body form and posture)
- Protecting crucial components of the body (brain, lung, heart, spinal cord)
- Furnishing surfaces for the attachments of muscles, tendons, and ligaments, which, in turn, pull on the individual bones and produce movement
- Providing storage areas for minerals (such as calcium) and fat
- Producing red blood cells (hematopoiesis)

3

Four types of bones in the skeletal system include:

- Long
- Short
- Flat
- Irregular

4

Long Bones

- Found in upper and lower extremities
- Contribute to height and length
Ex.. Humerus and Femur

5

Short Bones

- Contribute to movement
Ex.. Wrist and ankle bones

6

Flat Bones

- Relatively thin
- Contribute to shape/structural contour

Ex.. Ribs and several skull bones

7

Irregular Bones

- All other bones not categorized as long, short, or flat bones

Ex.. Bones of the spinal column and jaw

8

Three types of Joints include:

- Fibrous
- Cartilaginous
- Synovial

9

Characteristics of Fibrous Joints

- Immovable (Synarthrosis)
- No joint cavity

Ex.. Sutures between bones of skull

10

Characteristics of Cartilaginous Joints

- Slightly moveable (Amphiarthrosis)
- No joint cavity
- Cartilage between bones

Ex.. Public symphysis, joints between vertebrae

11

Characteristics of Synovial Joints

- Freely moveable *Diarthrosis)
- Joint cavity containing synovial fluid

Ex.. Gliding, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, ball-and-sock joints

12

Types of Synovial Joints include:

- Ball-and-Socket
- Condyloid
- Gliding
- Hinge
- Pivot
- Saddle

13

Characteristics of Ball-and-Socket Joints

- Rounded head of one bone fits into a cuplike cavity in the other

Movement:
- Flexion/Extension
- Abduction/Adduction
- Rotation

Ex.. Shoulder and Hip joints

14

Characteristics of Condyloid Joints include:

- Oval head of one bone fits into a shallow cavity of another bone

Movement:
- Flexion/Extension
- Abduction/Adduction

Ex.. Wrist and joints connecting finger to palm

15

Characteristics of Gliding Joints include:

- Flat surfaces of the bone slide over one another

Movement:
- Flexion/Extension
- Abduction/Adduction

Ex.. Carpal bones of wrist and tarsal bones of feet

16

Characteristics of Hinge Joints include:

- Spool-like (rounded) surface of one bone fits into a concave surface of another bone

Movement:
- Flexion/Extension

Ex.. Elbow, ankle, knee joints

17

Characteristics of Pivot Joints include:

- Ring-like structure that turns on a pivot

Movement:
- Rotation

Ex.. Joints between the atlas and axis of the neck and between the proximal ends of the radius and the ulna at the wrist

18

Characteristics of Saddle Joints include:

- Bone surfaces are convex on one side and concave on the other

Movement:
- Flexion/Extension
- Abduction/Adduction
- Circumduction
- Opposition

Ex.. Joint between the trapezium and metacarpal of the thumb

19

Movements of Diarthrodial Joints include:

- Abduction
- Adduction
- Flexion
- Extension
- Rotation

20

Special movements of the forearm, ankle, and clavicle include:

- Supination
- Pronation
- Inversion
- Eversion

21

Supination

- Assumption of the supine position

Ex.. Person lying flat on back is in the supine position. A person's palm is supine when the forearm is turned so the palm faces up.

22

Pronation

- Assumption of the prone position

Ex.. Person lying on stomach is in the prone position. A person's palm is prone when the forearm is turned so that the palm faces down

23

Inversion

- Movement of the sole of the foot inward
(occurs at the ankle)

24

Eversion

- Movement of the sole of the foot outward
(occurs at the ankle)

25

Opposition

- Rotation of the thumb around its long access

Ex.. Touching tips of fingers with the thumb of the same hand

*The thumb is the only joint that can perform opposition*

26

Abduction

- Lateral movement of a body part away from the midline of the body

Ex.. Raising arm to the side away from the body

27

Adduction

- Lateral movement of a body part toward the midline of the body

Ex.. Person's outstretched arm is moved back to a position alongside the body

28

Circumduction

- Turning in a circular motion
- Combines abduction, adduction, extension, and flexion

Ex.. Circling the arm at the shoulder, as in bowling or a serve in tennis

29

Flexion

- State of being bent

Ex.. Person's cervical spine is flexed when the head is bent forward, chin to chest

30

Extension

- State of being in a straight line

Ex.. A person's cervical spine is extended when the head is held straight on the spinal column

31

Hyperextension

- State of exaggerated extension

Ex.. A person's cervical spine is hyperextended when looking overhead, toward the ceiling

32

Dorsiflexion

- Backward bending of the hand or foot

Ex.. Toes pointed up as thought to point them at the knee

33

Plantar Flexion

- Flexion of the foot

Ex.. Foot drop

34

Rotation

- Turning on an axis
- Turning of a body part on the axis provided by it's joint

Ex.. Thumb is rotated when you move it to make a circle

35

Internal Rotation

- Body part turning on its axis toward the midline of the body

Ex.. A leg turned inward at the hip and the toes point toward the midline of the body

36

External Rotation

- Body part turning on its axis away from the midline of the body

Ex.. A leg turned outward at the hip and the toes point away from the midline of the body

37

The Muscular System is composed of three types of muscles that include:

- Skeletal
- Cardiac
- Smooth (Visceral)

38

Muscle tissues produce:

Movement by contraction of its cells

39

Functions of Skeletal Muscle

- Works with tendons and bones to move the body

40

Functions of Cardiac Muscle

- Forms bulk of the heart
- Produces the contractions that create the heartbeat

41

Functions of Smooth (Visceral) Muscle

- Forms walls of hollow organs (stomach and intestines)
- In the walls of blood vessels and other hollow tubes that connect internal organs (ureters)

42

Movement is generated when....

Muscles contract and exert force on a tendon, which pulls on a bone

43

Muscle functions include

- Motion
- Maintenance of posture
- Support/Protection
- Heat production

44

Muscles have two points of attachment. These are called:

- Point of Origin: Attachment of a muscle to a more stationary bone

Ex.. Biceps point of origin occurs at the shoulder

Point of Insertion: Attachment to the more movable bone

Ex.. Biceps point of insertion occurs at the elbow

45

The skeletal and muscular systems cannot produce purposeful movement without...

- A functioning nervous system

46

Nerve impulses stimulate ___________ to ____________.

muscles, contract

47

Nerve cells (neurons) conduct:

- Impulses from one part of the body to the other

48

Afferent neurons

- Convey information from receptors in the periphery of the body to the CNS

Ex.. Feeling of light pressure on your nose

49

Efferent Neurons

- Convey the response from the CNS to skeletal muscles by way of the somatic nervous system

Ex.. There is a fly on my nose I want to brush it off. Muscles contract to brush the fly from your nose

50

Body alignment/Posture

- Alignment of body parts that permits optimal musculoskeletal balance and operation

- Person in correct alignment experiences no undue strain

51

Balance

- Object is balanced when its center of gravity is close to its base of support
- Line of gravity goes through the base of support
- Object has a wide base of support

*The wider the base of support and the lower the center of gravity, the greater stability of the object*

52

Coordinated Body Movement

- Ability of muscles to work together for purposeful movement

53

Postural Reflexes

- Group of reflexes (automatic movements) that maintain body position and equilibrium

54

Ergonomics

- Practice of designing equipment and work tasks to conform to the capability of the worker and providing a means for adjusting the work environment and work practices to prevent injuries

55

High risk activities for nurses and patients include:

- Manually lifting, transferring, and repositioning of patients that involves lifting most or all of a patient's weight

56

Patient handling injuries represent more than _______ of injuries to nurses.

20%

57

Before transferring a patient consider:

- Size of the patient
- How much help the patient can provide
- Nurses size and strength
- The equipment and lines attached to the patient

58

Range of Motion (ROM)

- The complete extent of movement of which a joint is normally capable

59

Active Range of Motion (AROM)

- Patient independently moves joints through their full range of motion

60

Active Assistive range of motion (AAROM)

- Nurse may provide minimal support

61

Passive exercise (PROM)

- Patient is unable to move independently and the nurse moves each joint through its range of motion

62

Factors affecting mobility

- Developmental considerations (person's age, posture, body mass, reflexes)
- Physical health (Acute and chronic health problems)
- Problems involving other body systems (Pt with scoliosis or club foot)
- Mental health (Influences body appearance and movement)
- Lifestyle (Active or sedentary)
- Attitude and Values
- Fatigue and Stress (Chronic stress may deplete energy making the patient not want to move)
- External Factors (Weather, Finances)

63

Isotonic exercise

- Muscle shortening and active movement
Ex.. ROM exercises, swimming, walking, jogging

64

Isometric exercise

- Muscle contraction without shortening
Ex.. Contracting gluteal muscles while holding a yoga pose

65

Isokinetic exercise

- Muscle contractions with resistance
Ex.. Rehabilitative exercises for knee using an external device

66

Aerobic exercise

- Obtains energy from metabolic pathways that use oxygen
- Uses large muscle groups continuously and rhythmically
Ex.. Running, swimming

67

Stretching exercises

Movements that allow muscles/joints to be stretched gently through their full range of motion. Increase flexibility.
Ex.. warm up exercises, cool down routine

68

Strength and Endurance exercises

- Muscle-building programs
Ex.. Weight training

69

Movement and ADLs include:

- Household chores
- Activities of daily living

70

Benefits of exercise

- Improves cardiovascular health
- Increases muscle tone and flexibility
- Enhances immune system
- Promotes weight loss
- Decreases stress/increases overall feeling of well-being
- Weight bearing exercises improve bone density in the elderly

71

Effects of Immobility on Cardiovascular System

- Increased cardiac workload
- Increased risk for orthostatic hypotension
- Increased risk for venous thrombosis

72

Effects of Immobility on Respiratory System

- Decrease in depth and rate of respirations
- Pooling of secretions
- Impaired gas exchange

73

Effects of Immobility on GI System

- Disturbances in appetite
- Decreased food intake or anorexia
- Altered protein metabolism
- Altered digestion and utilization of food
- Decrease in peristalsis

74

Effects of Immobility on Urinary System

- Urinary stasis
- Renal calculi
- Decrease in muscle tone

75

Effects of Immobility on Musculoskeletal System

- Decreased muscle size (atrophy), tone, and strength
- Decreased joint mobility and flexibility
- Bone demineralization (osteoporosis)
- Decrease in endurance and stability
- Increased risk for contracture formation (shortening and hardening of muscles/tendons

76

Effects of Immobility on Metabolic System

- Increased risk for electrolyte imbalance
- Altered exchange of nutrients and gases

77

Effects of Immobility on Integumentary System

- Risk for skin breakdown and formation of pressure injuries

78

Effects of Immobility on Psychological Well-Being

- Increased sense of powerlessness
- Decrease in self-conceptualism
- Decrease in social interaction
- Decrease in sensory stimulation
- Altered sleep-wake pattern
- Increased risk for depression
- Risk for learned helplessness

79

Risks associated with exercise

- Cardiac injury

- Orthopedic Discomfort/Disability (Irritation of bones, tendons, ligaments, muscles)

- Dehydration/Heat Exhaustion
- Chest Pain
- Exercise-associated injuries

80

Congenital Musculoskeletal System Abnormalities

- Fused fingers and toes
- Foot deformities (Clubfoot)
- Scoliosis

81

Diseases that affect joint mobility include:

- Rheumatoid Arthritis
- Ankylosing Spondylosis (inflammatory disease that can cause some of the small bones in your spine (vertebrae) to fuse)
- Gout

82

Problems with bone integrity include:

- Osteoporosis
- Osteomyelitis
- Bone tumors

83

Trauma includes:

- Bone fractures
- Muscle strains (Injury to a muscle or to the band of tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone)
- Muscle sprain (Injury to the bands of tissue that connect two bones together)

84

Interventions for Patients on Bed Rest

- Position patient for maximum lung expansion
- Provide a healthy diet to prevent loss of muscle mass
- Prevent orthostatic hypotension
- Turn/Reposition patient every 2 hours and as needed to prevent pressure on skin

85

Physical Assessment of Mobility Status includes:

1. An assessment of general ease of movement and gait
2. Alignment
3. Joint structure and function
4. Muscle mass
5. Tone
6. Strength
7. Endurance

86

Equipment and Assistive Devices

- Gait belts
- Friction-reducing sheets
- Transfer chairs
- Powered stand-assist
- Powered full-body lift
- Powered repositioning lift
- Slide boards

87

Common Positioning Devices

- Pillows and Foam Wedges
- Adjustable Beds
- Mattresses
- Trapeze Bars
- Cradle Boots
- Trochanter Rolls
- Side Rails

88

Fowler's position

- A semi-sitting position; the head of the bed is raised between 45 and 60 degrees

89

Semi-Fowler's Position

- The head of the bed is raised 30 degrees

90

High Fowler's Position

- Head of bed is elevated to 90 degrees

91

Side-laying or Lateral Position

- Client is rotated to the left or right 30 degrees, with knees flexed

92

Prone position

- Lying on abdomen, facing downward (head may be turned to one side)

93

Orthopneic position

- Head of bed is elevated and the over-bed table is positioned in front of the patient to rest on

94

Trendelenburg position

- Patient is placed supine with their head down and feet elevated above the head

95

Mechanical Aids for Walking

- Walker
- Cane
- Braces
- Crutches

96

Nursing Diagnosis for Mobility and Activity

- Activity intolerance
- Risk for activity intolerance
- Risk for falls
- Risk for aspiration
- Risk for impaired skin integrity
- Impaired mobility

97

Why are ergonomics important in patient care?

- To prevent injuries