Sept 24 bioch lectures

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created 4 weeks ago by obhill
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9/26 note: have marked ones that i know are also in my list i made. so, if not marked, will need to go over before exam, but if marked, can not look as long as I quiz self from sheet
updated 4 weeks ago by obhill
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1

Important concepts

...

2

4 things the liver will do in a fasting state

The liver will
1. Release glucose in the blood from its glycogen stores (glycogenolysis)
2. Synthesize and release in the blood ‘new’ glucose (gluconeogenesis)
3. Synthesize and release in the blood ketone bodies (ketogenesis)
4. Use exclusively faty acid oxidaton (vs ketone bodies and glucose) to maintain its
functon

3

Fat cell view

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4

what hormone makes the switch from fed to starving state actions

glucagon adrenaline epinephrine

5

3 enzymes of adipose lipolysis

which is rate limiter

  • ATGL (adipose triacylglycerol lipase)... RATE LIMIT
  • HSL (hormone sensitive Lipase)
  • MAGL (monoacylglycerol lipase): NOT hormonally reg
6

Regulation of Lipolysis

steps from basal to stimulated

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PKA phosphorylation: CGI-58 gets unsequestered via phosphorylation of perilipin

ATGL activated

HSL also phosphorylated, increased activity and translocates to the lipid droplet to act

7

Insulin and lipolysis

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8

how many FA at a time can albumin carry

adipose tissue fuel options

many

can send glycerol on to make glucose

fa to tissues for ox

9

FA into tissues during fasted state

two sources

important enzyme

two organelles and way in each

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10

carnitine shuttle

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Fatty acids shorter than 10 carbons ...

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FA oxidation process (4 steps, RL enzyme, final products)

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side by side of fa oxidation v synth

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14

diff lengths of acyl coa dehydrogenases

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15

MCADD

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most common

high levels of acyl carnitines of specific lengths will diagnose

16

Energy from stearate oxidation

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17

oxidation of odd chain FA

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18

Regulation of mitochondrial FA ox

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19

FA oxidation in peroxisomes

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diff enzymes

not atp linked, so results leave as acyl carnitines of FFA, not acyl coa-->shortened FA and acyl carnitines go to mitochondria to be completed

20

Adrenoleukodistrophy

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important concepts FA ox lecture

Important enzymes

  • ATGL (adipose triacylglycerol lipase)
  • HSL (hormone sensitive Lipase)
  • MAGL (monoacylglycerol lipase)
  • Acyl-CoA synthetase
  • Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase I and II, Carnitine Acylcarnitine translocase
  • Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase
  • Diff lengths
  • Propionyl coa one
  • Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, Vitb12

Important molecules/concepts

  • Glucagon, adrenaline, and epinephrine play a key role in driving the metabolic switch from fed to fasted (nothing else is needed from slide ‘fasted state metabolism overview”
  • CGI-58, perlipin
  • PKA
  • Albumin
  • Adipose tissue fuel sources
  • ABCD1 transporter
  • Carnitine Shuttle
  • Carnitine
  • , acylcarnitine
  • Acyl CoA
  • Fatty acids shorter than 10 c

Important Processes

  • Lipolysis regulation
  • Insulin reg
  • Carnitine shuttle
  • Beta oxidation
  • Odd chain FA ox
  • Regulation of

Structures

  • Fat cell view

Diseases

  • MCAD deficiency
  • Adrenoleukodistrophy
22

important concepts from ketone body lecture

Enzymes

  • Thiolase
  • HMG-CoA synthase
  • HMG-CoA lyase
  • D-b-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase

Molecules

  • Beta hydroxybutyrate
  • Acetoacetate
  • acetone

Processes

  • Ketogenesis
  • Overview of ketone metabolism
  • Utilization of ketone bodies for energy by extra hepatic tissues
23

the three ketone bodies and their structures

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24

image of ketone body w other processes

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preferrential if atp high

25

ketogenesis

steps

important enzyme

what causes it

location

rate reflects what

what can it stimulate

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soo, if have a lot of acetyl coa AND lots of ATP, this is likely, bc then it means are in FA ox and need to make more energy.. also would have a lot of nadh but FROM fa ox. (use nadph to build)

26

blood ketone concentrations reflect...

ketone body reg

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helps to prevent muscles from making glucose... alternative fuel that keeps muscles in tact

27

overview of ketone metabolism

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utilization of ketone bodies by extra hepatic tissues

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29
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...