Behavioral Sciences

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1

Habituation

Repeated exposure to a stimulus causes a decrease in response to that stimulus over time

Dishabituation - recovering the response after habituation - intermediate stimulus then the original stimulus is repeated.

2

Associative Learning

Pairing of stimuli or response with a behavior

Classical conditioning and operant conditioning

3

Classical Conditioning

terms: Little Alber

Neutral stimulus - no response

Unconditioned stimulus - stimulus that brings a reflexive respons (unconditioned response)

Conditioned stimulus - prev. neutral stimulus that leads to a desired response

Conditioned response - response caused by the conditioned stimulus

4

Acquisition

Where a stimulus response pair becomes conditioned - pavlov's dogs

So the bell is connected to the food in the dog's mind

5

Extinction

The habituation of the CS leading to no desired response

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Spontaneous Recovery

Emergence of prev. habituated CR

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Discrimination

Distinction where one is conditioned to a specific CS (two different types of bells for differet food)

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Generalization

Broadening effect to similar stimuli (scared of white rat as well as santa with white hair)

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Operant conditioning

(BF skinner)

A behavior is likely to continue if adding positive reinforcement

(Reinforcement - will make them perform a behavior)

(Positive - good incentive, negative - bad incentive)

10

Fixed Interval, Variable Interval, Fixed Ratio, Variable Ratio

FI - reward given after defined time interval if behavior occurred in that time frame

FR - Reward given after a defined number of performances of desired behavior

VI - Reward given after random time intervals if behavior occurred in that time frame

VR - reward given after a random number of performances of desired behavior - most performance of behavior, least risk of extinction --- consistent performance cause variable

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Latent Learning

Learning where a new behavior is acquired by they are not aware that they learned it until incentivized to showcase it. occurs without immediate reward and works just as well as rewarding with learning

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Instinctive Drift

Overcoming an instinctive behavior

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Preparedness

Predisposed to a certain behavior - need to be taught as a human to walk but it comes naturally

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Observational Learning

Learning a new behavior by watcing others

Modeling - emulating or copying learned behavior

15

Phrenology (Franz Gall) - linked behavior and personality to brain structure

If a certain trait was well developed in the brain then it would bulge - it would be well developed and felt

Proven to be false

16

Extirpation (Pierre Flourens)

Parts of the brain are surgically removed and behavior consequences observed - saw that each area of the brain has certain functions

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Functionalism (William james and John Dewey)

How mental processes help individuals adapt to their environment - purely mental not physiological

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Functional Impairments (Paul Broca)

Found Broca's area where a certain lesion is indicative of certain functional impairments (his area is linked to speach)

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Structure of eye

Cornea (dome like structure allowing light), pupil (gap in iris), Iris (colored portion, contractile muscles (smaller iris bigger pupil)) (dialate in the dark), Lens (focuses light at the back)

20

Rods and Cones

Take photons and make into electrical signal (membrane shelve towards the back, synapse towards the front of the eye) (20 times more rods than cones everywhere but fovea)

Rods - have rhodopsin pigment - low sensitivity to detail but allow night vision - not color depiction

Cones - 3 types of rhodopsin - sensitive to color and etail (RGB) - most at the fovea

Will then send signals to bipolar cells which signal ganglian cells which are connected to the optic nerve. But the phonton actually moves through the ganglian first then bipolar then to rods/cones then back again

21

Light coming into retina on left side is directed towards the right half of the retina and vice versa for each eye. Then there are the temporal and nasal fibers and hit the optic chiasm where they crossover (nasal fibers cross). Because temporal fibers don't cross, reorganization means that all fibers corresponding to the left visual field from both eyes are projected into the right side of the brain and vv. Visual clues will be processed by both hemispheres. Translated to the lateral geniculate nucleus the visual cortex and superior colliculus

...

22

Visual Processing (Lateral geniculate nucleus, visual cortex, superior colliculus)

Just know they are processed here

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Parallel processing

ability to identify characteristics, apply characteristics to memory, recall a word to describe the object (looking at spots on a big cat to recall its a cheetah)

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Feature detection

Recognition of features identify desired object in visual field - filtering out based on important features - only focusing on green lets say to find a friend wearing a green shirt

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automatic processing

Information encoded from passive exposure to the environment

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controlled processing

active memorization like studying with notecards

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semantic encoding

encoding information by putting it into a meaningful context, especially within our own lives like self reference effect

28

Sensory Memory

preserves information in its original sensory form - high accuracy for a short amount of time (few seconds) (iconic (visual) and echoic (auditory) memory)

29

Short-term memory

fades after 30 seconds - held to around 7 items or 7+- 2, this is housed in the hippocampus which is responsible for making short term into long term memory

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working memory

keep a few pieces of information in our memory to manipulate it (simple math)

31

long term memory

card image

recall on demand, basically limitless - use elaborative rehearsal to tie something to something else already in long term memory. Primarily controlled by the hippocampus, some memories are moved back to the cerebral cortex

32

Explicit memory

conscious memory, includes episodic and semantic memory

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implicit memory

skills, habits, conditioned responses ( contains procedural memory (skills tasks) priming)

Priming is exposure to one stimulis affects the behavior one would have to another stimulis

34

spacing effect

Process of relearning that emphasizes the importance of spacing out studying over a time period to re learn and reinforce

35

semantic network

context effect

State dependent memory

concepts are linked based on similar meaning (red and firetruck)

memory aided by being in same physical location as learned

memory dependent on being in the same mental state as you learned it

36

retrograde amnesia

loss of previously formed memories

37

anterograde amnesia

inability to form new memories

38

agnosia

Confabulation

loss of ability to recognize objects people sounds

process of creating vivid but fabricated memories

39

proactive and retroactive interference

pro - old info interferes with new learning

retro - new info interferes with old memories

40

source-monitoring error

someone remembers the details of the event but forgets the context under which the details were gained

41

Sensory Neurons

also known as afferent neurons - transmit sensory information from receptors to the spinal cord and brain

42

Motor Neurons

alson known as efferent neurons - transmit motor information from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands

43

Interneurons

Found between other neurons and are the most numerous of the three types

44

Reflex arc

Someone steps on a nail - receptors in foot detect pain and pain signal is transmitted by sensory neurons up to spinal cord - connect to interneurons which send info to muscles of the foot directly - faster response then just to brain and back

45

Central Nervous System

Brian and Spinal Cord

46

Peripheral Nervous System

Nerve tissue and fibers outside the brain and spinal cord (including spinal nerves and cranial nerves). Connecting CNS to the rest of the body

47

Somatic nervous system

sensory and motor neurons (peripheral nervous system)

48

Autonomic nervous system

regulates heartbeat respiration digestion secretions - independent of conscious control

49

Parasympathetic nervous system

Part of the autonomic NS - needs to conserve energy, resting and sleeping states (slow heart rate etc.). Uses Acetylcholine as a neurotransmitter responsible for responses in the body

50

Sympathetic nervous system

activated by stress - associated with a range of fear reactions - increase heart rate, incresases blood glucose concentration, decreases digestion and peristalsis

51

Meninges

Brain is covered by this three-layered sheath of connective tissue

Dura mater - outer layer, connected to the skull

arachnoid mater - middle layer that is fibrous and weblike

pia mater - connected to the brain

52

Hindbrain

developed early, make the brainstem with the midbrain, deals with basic survival. Refined motor movement, heart vital reflexes, breathing, alertness. Responsible for motor coordination and balance

53

Midbrain

developed early, make the brainstem with the midbrain, deals with basic survival, sensorimotor reflexes

54

forebrain

developed later, deals with more advanced thought and function. Has cerebral cortex which deals with complex perceptal cognitive and behavioral processes. Really describes human behavior

55

CT Scan

Multiple X rays taken at different angles and processed by a computer to produce cross sectional images of tissue

56

PET

radiactive sugar is injected and absorbed into body - and its dispersion and uptake throughout the tissue is examined

57

MRI

Magnetic field that interacts with hydrogen atoms is used to map out hydrogen dense regions of body

58

fMRI

same thing as MRI but measures blood flow - good for brain activity

59

Hypothalamus

serve homeostatic functions - emotional experiences during high arousal states, agressive behavior and sexual behavior. Controls endocrine function and autonomic nervous system . Metabolism temp, water balance. Works with pituitary gland

60

Development of Nervous System

Neurulation occurs when the notochord causes differentiation of overlying ectoderm into the neural tube and neural crest cells. the neural tube becomes the the CNS and neural crest cells migrate to other sites in the body to differentiate into a number of different tissues

61

Thalamus

in forebrain and serves as relay station for incoming sensory information - all senses except smell - then ships senses to other parts of the brain

62

Cerebellum

Part of the hindbrain - helps maintain posture and balance and coordinated body movements

63

Basal Ganglia

coordinate muscle movement as they receive information from cortex and relay the info to brain and spinal cord (Parkinson's affects this)

64

Limbic System

Comprises group of interconnected structures looping around central portion of brain - emotion and memory

65

Hippocampus

learning and memory processes - consolidate to form long term memories

66

Pineal Gland

Produces melatonin

67

Cerebral Cortex

numerous bumps and folds - two hemispheres and surface is divided into four lobes (frontal parietal occipital temporal)

68

Frontal Lobe

made of prefrontal cortex and motor cortex - prefrontal manages executive function by supervising and directing the operations of other brain regions (attention alertness waking up impulse control) - primary mortor cortex to initiate voluntary motor movements by sending neural impulses down spinal cord to muscles

69

Parietal Lobe

located to the rear of the frontal lobe - controls somatosensory cortex which acts as a destination for all incoming sensory signals for touch pressure temp and pain

70

Occipital Lobe

Very rear of the brain - contains visual cortex

71

Temporal lob

on the sides - auditory cortex, Wernicke's area (language reception and comprehension)

72

Dominant hemisphere

Usually the left hemisphere - is analytic in function, well suited for managing details - languae, logic, math - For most things (other than hearing) the hemisphere of the brain works with the opposite side of the body

73

nondominant hemisphere

Usually the right - intuition creativity music spatial processing (like where to find your car)

74

Agonist and antagonist

agonist is a drug that mimics and neurotransmitter, antagonist block action of neurotransmitters

75

Acetylcholine

Found in the central and peripheral nervous system. in PNS used to transmit nerve impusles to muscles. in CNS, linked to attention and arousal

76

Epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (nonadrenaline)

control alertness and wakefulness (primary neuro transmitter in the sympathetic nervous system)

Fight or flight response, epinephrine is a secreted to act as a hormone. Secreted in times of stress.

norepinephrine - has a role in depression and anxiety. Secreted to help with energy and alterness at more continuous levels

77

Dopamine

Type of neurotransmitter in the brain. plays role in movement and posture. Also plays role in reward system, pleasurable experiences, and motivaiton. Imbalances can cause neurologic diseases

78

Serotonin

Thought to play roles in regulating mood, eating, sleeping, and dreaming. And maintaining happiness. Thought ot play a role in depression and mania

79

gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

thought to play role in stabilizing neural activity in the brain. Causes hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane

80

Glycine

Glutamate

also serves as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system by increasing chloride influx into the neuron (stabilization)

Serves as an excitatory neurotransmitter

81

Endorphins

natural painkillers produced in the brain

82

Pituitary gland

divided into anterior and posterior

anterior - releases hormones that regulate activities of endocrine glands elsewhere in body (controlled by hypothalamus)

83

Adrenal glands

located on top of kidneys, (adrenal medulla) release epinephrine and norepinephrine as part of the sympathetic nervous system, (adrenal cortex) produces many hormones called corticosteroids (like cortisol stress hormone) and testosterone and estrogen

84

Prenatal development

neurulation - development of nervous system. Neural groove invaginated becoming neural tube

The mother's health and wellbeing is super important for developing fetus

85

Moro reflex

infantile reflex which seems to have an instinctual origin - babies reach out their arms and slowly retract them and start crying - helps from falling out of trees

86

Babinski reflex

toes spread apart automatically when sole of foot is stimulated. this is a primitive reflex. Once an adult should curl inwards, if not then damage has been done.

87

Developmental milestone themes

Gross motor skills (larger movement) progress in a head to toe order starting with abilitiy to lift the head stabilize trunk and walk. Motor skills start to be developed closer to the core at first then outward. Social skills go from parent oriented to self oriented to other oriented

88

Nociceptors

osmoreceptors

respond to painful or noxious stimuli

respond to osmolarity of the blood

89

absolute threshold

minimum of stimulus energy that is needed to activate a sensory system

90

subliminal perception

when information received by the central nervous system does not cross threshold of conscious perception (gets to CNS but doesn't get to consciousness)

91

Weber's Law

The just-noticeable difference is proportional to the magnitude of the stimulus and that this proportion is constant over most of the range of possible stimuli

92

vestibular sense

our ability to both detect rotational and linear acceleration and to use info to inform our sense of balance and spatial orientation

93

Ear structure and function

Pinna (cartilidge channels sound into middle ear), travel in with the tympanic membrane to hit the middle ear (ossicles which are the malleus which acts on the incus which then acts on the stapes. Rests on the open window of the cochlea. The middle ear is connected to the nasal cavity by the Eustachian tube. Inner ear has bony labyrinth (with perilymph) - it contains the membranous labyrinth (endolymph and cochlea to which it detects sound)

94

Somatosensation

refers to the four touch modalities (pressue, vibration, pain, temp)

95

Kinesthetic sense

ability to tell where one's body is in three dimensional space

96

bottom up processing

recognition of objects by parallel processing and feature detection - slower less prone to mistakes

97

top down processing

recognition of an object by memories and expectations with little attention to detail = faster more mistakes