Chapter 12- cardiovascular system disorders

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 4 weeks ago by annabanana829
6 views
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

How is Cardiac Function Measured?

  • Cardiac Output
  • Cardiac Reserve
  • Preload
  • Afterload
2

Hypovolemic

Loss of blood or plasma

3

Causes of Hypovolemic

  • Hemorrhage
  • Burns
  • Dehydration
  • Peritonitis
  • pancreatits
4

Cardiogenic

Decreased pumping capability of the heart

5

The amount of blood pumped by the ventricle in one minute.

Cardiac Output

Normal 4900-5000mL per minute

6

The amount of blood pumped from the ventricle with each contraction.

Stroke Volume

7

The ability of the heart to increase output in response to increased demand.

Cardiac Reserve

8

The amount of blood returning to the heart via the venous system; volume of blood filling the ventricles

Preload

9

The amount of resistance that the left ventricle has to overcome to eject blood.

Afterload

10

The pressure of blood against the systemic arterial walls.

Blood Pressure

11

The force that opposes blood flow; amount of friction within the vessel walls that is encountered by blood.

Peripheral resistance

12

What is the sympathetic nervous system's role in elevated blood pressure?

  • Stimulates aldosterone secretion to retain sodium and water which increases volume.
  • Release of epinephrine and norepinephrine to increase heart rate, force of contraction, and vasoconstriction.
  • Activation of the Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System (RAAS) to vasoconstrict and increase blood volume
  • Secretion of anti-diuretic hormone to retain fluid which increases blood volume.
13

A nurse is teaching a student about modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. Which risk factors, if stated by the student, indicates an understanding of the teaching?

  • Obesity
  • Uncontrolled hypertension
  • High cholesterol
  • Smoking
  • Sedentary lifestyle
14

Chest pain that occurs as a result of deficit of oxygen to the heart muscle.

Angina

15

Chest pain that is not resolved with rest or nitroglycerin.

Unstable Angina

16

Chest pain that is due to vasospasm in the artery, usually temporary.

variant

17

Chest pain that is predictable; occurs on exertion, goes away with rest and/or nitroglycerin.

Classic/Extertional

18

A nurse is teaching a student about the pathophysiology of a myocardial infarction. Which statement by the student indicates understanding of the teaching?

It is a total occlusion of a coronary artery.

19

A client presents to the emergency department with chest pain that radiates to the left arm. Which blood test does the nurse anticipate obtaining?

Troponin

20

Which of the following are causes of a myocardial infarction?

  • Embolus
  • Thrombosis of a coronary artery
  • Vasospasm
21

Decreased cardiac output and pulmonary congestion.

Left Sided Heart Failure

22

Inability to pump sufficient blood to meet metabolic needs of the body.

Heart Failure

23

Decreased cardiac output and systemic congestion

Right Sided Heart Failure

24

Symptoms of Forward Left and Right Sided Heart Failure

▪Dyspnea

▪Fatigue & weakness

▪Exercise intolerance

25

Symptoms of Backward Left Sided Heart Failure

▪Orthopnea (Shortness of Breath when laying down)

▪Pink-frothy sputum (when blood mixes with air in the lungs and causes a cappuccino type froth)

▪Cough

▪Rales/crackles

26

Symptoms of Backward Right Sided Heart Failure

▪Edema

▪Feet, legs, buttocks

▪Ascites

▪Hepatomegaly & Splenomegaly

Jugular vein distention

27

The compensation mechanisms of the RAAS and SNS in heart failure, end up causing more harm to the heart.

True

28

A client presents with fatigue, dyspnea, orthopnea, and pink frothy sputum. What blood test does the nurse anticipate drawing?

B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)

29

A client asks a nurse how he developed rheumatic heart disease. Which answer, if stated by the nurse, is correct?

Strep A infection

30

A nurse is teaching a client about the most serious complication of infective endocarditis. Which complication, if stated by the client, indicates teaching was effective?

Septic Emboli

31

A nurse is teaching a client with pericarditis about the manifestations of cardiac tamponade. Which manifestations, if stated by the client, indicates teaching was effective?

  • Pulsus paradoxus
  • Muffled heart sounds
  • Distended neck veins
32

A nurse is teaching a client about the complications of hypertension. Which complications, if stated by the client indicate understanding of the teaching?

  • Renal failure
  • Blindness
  • Strokes
  • Heart failure
33

A nurse is teaching a client with an aortic aneurism about complications. Which complication, if stated by the client, indicates a need for further instruction?

Dysphagia

34

A nurse is teaching a client about manifestations of peripheral vascular disease. Which manifestation, if stated by the client, indicates a need for further instruction?

Massive swelling in the legs

35

What are the risk factors (Virchow's Triad) for developing a deep vein thrombosis?

  • Hypercoagulability
  • Venous stasis
  • Venous endothelial damage
36

A nurse is teaching a student about the compensation manifestations of shock. Which manifestations, if stated by the student, indicate understanding of the teaching?

  • Cool skin
  • Tachycardia
  • Oliguria
  • Pallor
37

How do you figure out Cardiac Volume

Heart Rate * Stroke Volume=

38

Arteriosclerosis

  • Hardening of the arteries
  • Loss of elasticity
  • Lumen Narrows
39

Atherosclerosis

  • Presence of Atheroma
  • Plaque
  • can break free causing embloi
40

Modifiable Risk Factors of Atheroclerosis

  • Obesity
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Sedentary life style
  • diabetes mellitus
  • Poorly controlled Hypertension
41

Non-Modifiable Risk Factors of Atheroclerosis

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Genetic
42

three different patterns of angina pectoris

  • Classic
  • Variant
  • Unstable (most serious)
43

Patho of Myocardial Infraction

caused when a coronary artery is completely obstructed leading to prolonged ischemia and cell death

44

Causes of Myocardial Infraction

  • Thrombus build up- Coronary Artery Thrombus
  • Embolus
  • Vasospasm
45

Manifestations of Myocardial Infraction

  • Constant Chest pain
  • Diaphoresis
  • Pallor
  • Nausea
  • Dizziness and weakness
  • Dyspnea
46

Complications of MI

  • Sudden Death
  • Cardiogenic Shock
  • Congestive Heart Failure
47

Right sided Heart Failure effects?

The body and right side of the heart

48

Left Sided Heart Failure effects?

The lungs and the left side of the heart