Chapter 12- cardiovascular system disorders
How is Cardiac Function Measured?
- Cardiac Output
- Cardiac Reserve
Loss of blood or plasma
Causes of Hypovolemic
Decreased pumping capability of the heart
The amount of blood pumped by the ventricle in one minute.
Normal 4900-5000mL per minute
The amount of blood pumped from the ventricle with each contraction.
The ability of the heart to increase output in response to increased demand.
The amount of blood returning to the heart via the venous system; volume of blood filling the ventricles
The amount of resistance that the left ventricle has to overcome to eject blood.
The pressure of blood against the systemic arterial walls.
The force that opposes blood flow; amount of friction within the vessel walls that is encountered by blood.
What is the sympathetic nervous system's role in elevated blood pressure?
- Stimulates aldosterone secretion to retain sodium and water which increases volume.
- Release of epinephrine and norepinephrine to increase heart rate, force of contraction, and vasoconstriction.
- Activation of the Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System (RAAS) to vasoconstrict and increase blood volume
- Secretion of anti-diuretic hormone to retain fluid which increases blood volume.
A nurse is teaching a student about modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. Which risk factors, if stated by the student, indicates an understanding of the teaching?
- Uncontrolled hypertension
- High cholesterol
- Sedentary lifestyle
Chest pain that occurs as a result of deficit of oxygen to the heart muscle.
Chest pain that is not resolved with rest or nitroglycerin.
Chest pain that is due to vasospasm in the artery, usually temporary.
Chest pain that is predictable; occurs on exertion, goes away with rest and/or nitroglycerin.
A nurse is teaching a student about the pathophysiology of a myocardial infarction. Which statement by the student indicates understanding of the teaching?
It is a total occlusion of a coronary artery.
A client presents to the emergency department with chest pain that radiates to the left arm. Which blood test does the nurse anticipate obtaining?
Which of the following are causes of a myocardial infarction?
- Thrombosis of a coronary artery
Decreased cardiac output and pulmonary congestion.
Left Sided Heart Failure
Inability to pump sufficient blood to meet metabolic needs of the body.
Decreased cardiac output and systemic congestion
Right Sided Heart Failure
Symptoms of Forward Left and Right Sided Heart Failure
▪Fatigue & weakness
Symptoms of Backward Left Sided Heart Failure
▪Orthopnea (Shortness of Breath when laying down)
▪Pink-frothy sputum (when blood mixes with air in the lungs and causes a cappuccino type froth)
Symptoms of Backward Right Sided Heart Failure
▪Feet, legs, buttocks
▪Hepatomegaly & Splenomegaly
Jugular vein distention
The compensation mechanisms of the RAAS and SNS in heart failure, end up causing more harm to the heart.
A client presents with fatigue, dyspnea, orthopnea, and pink frothy sputum. What blood test does the nurse anticipate drawing?
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)
A client asks a nurse how he developed rheumatic heart disease. Which answer, if stated by the nurse, is correct?
Strep A infection
A nurse is teaching a client about the most serious complication of infective endocarditis. Which complication, if stated by the client, indicates teaching was effective?
A nurse is teaching a client with pericarditis about the manifestations of cardiac tamponade. Which manifestations, if stated by the client, indicates teaching was effective?
- Pulsus paradoxus
- Muffled heart sounds
- Distended neck veins
A nurse is teaching a client about the complications of hypertension. Which complications, if stated by the client indicate understanding of the teaching?
- Renal failure
- Heart failure
A nurse is teaching a client with an aortic aneurism about complications. Which complication, if stated by the client, indicates a need for further instruction?
A nurse is teaching a client about manifestations of peripheral vascular disease. Which manifestation, if stated by the client, indicates a need for further instruction?
Massive swelling in the legs
What are the risk factors (Virchow's Triad) for developing a deep vein thrombosis?
- Venous stasis
- Venous endothelial damage
A nurse is teaching a student about the compensation manifestations of shock. Which manifestations, if stated by the student, indicate understanding of the teaching?
- Cool skin
How do you figure out Cardiac Volume
Heart Rate * Stroke Volume=
- Hardening of the arteries
- Loss of elasticity
- Lumen Narrows
- Presence of Atheroma
- can break free causing embloi
Modifiable Risk Factors of Atheroclerosis
- Cigarette smoking
- Sedentary life style
- diabetes mellitus
- Poorly controlled Hypertension
Non-Modifiable Risk Factors of Atheroclerosis
three different patterns of angina pectoris
- Unstable (most serious)
Patho of Myocardial Infraction
caused when a coronary artery is completely obstructed leading to prolonged ischemia and cell death
Causes of Myocardial Infraction
- Thrombus build up- Coronary Artery Thrombus
Manifestations of Myocardial Infraction
- Constant Chest pain
- Dizziness and weakness
Complications of MI
- Sudden Death
- Cardiogenic Shock
- Congestive Heart Failure
Right sided Heart Failure effects?
The body and right side of the heart
Left Sided Heart Failure effects?
The lungs and the left side of the heart