general bio 1 lab midterm part 2 Flashcards


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1

scientific inquiry

the search for information and explanations about curiosities

2

null hypothesis

a general statement that there is no relationship between two measured phenomena

3

alternative hypothesis

seeks to find a relationship between two natural phenomena

4

prediction

typically and "if then" statement which leads to your experiment

5

experimentation

measure the response and changes that occur due to the manipulation

6

experimental group

the independent variable is manipulated

7

control group

the independent variable is removed or set at a specific standard

8

data collection

information that is collected and recorded in the best possible manner

9

data evaluation

looks for relationship, trends, tendencies and any other information that your data reveals

10

conclusion/hypothesis evaluation

you will decide if your null hypothesis or alternative hypothesis is supported or not

11

deductive reasoning

takes general information and applies it to specific instances

12

inductive reasoning

begins with specific information and looks to apply it to larger more general instances

13

cellular respiration

produces energy

14

parfocal

the ability of a microscope to stay in focus as the magnification is either increased or decreased

15

total magnification

determined by multiplying the magnification of the ocular X the magnification of the objective in use

16

resolution

the ability of a lens to distinguish between two points that are very close together

17

working distance

the distance from the specimen on the slide to the objective lens of the microscope

18

base

the bottom part on which the microscope rests

19

arm

the angular part of the frame

20

stage

the platform on which the slide is placed

21

body tube

connects the oculars and nosepiece

22

mechanical stage

two clips hold the specimen and two knobs on the lower left of the stage move the specimen transversely and longitudinally

23

light

provides built in illumination

24

diaphragm

located below the stage and regulates the amount of light passing through the stage

25

condenser

a movable lens located in the hole of the stage

26

coarse adjustment knob

larger knob that raises and lowers the body tube for focusing

27

fine adjustment knob

the external knob that is used for final focusing

28

revolving nosepiece

the moveable part of the nosepiece that turns the objective lens

29

oculars

lenses at the top of the body tube

30

interpupillary adjustment

a slide adjustment that allows you to adjust oculars to the corner spacing your eyes

31

diopter adjustment

allows you to adjust each eye to the objective

32

dissecting microscopes

these have two oculars and produce an image with depth

33

phase contrast microscopes

these allow a person to view small specimens or live specimens

34

transmission electron microscope

magnify thousands of times and allow scientists to see into the inner structure of cells

35

scanning electron microscope

produce images of surface objects

36

scanning tunneling electron microscope

most powerful type of EM, can magnify millions of times and can "see" individual atoms

37

What structures are seen in plant cells but not animal cells?

cell wall and chloroplasts

38

What structures are common to all cells?

cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus

39

4X lens

scanning power (red)

40

10X

low power (yellow)

41

40X

high power (blue)

42

100X

oil immersion (white/silver)

43

cell wall

a nonliving, porous semi-rigid casing for protoplasm

44

cytoplasm

the viscous granular mass of protoplasm, grey or blue in appearance depending on stain

45

cell membrane

a selectively permeable covering around the protoplasm that regulates transported materials

46

vacuole

a clear area in the cell that is not occupied by cytoplasm and is not present in young cells

47

organelle

any structure of the cell with specific functions

48

cell sap

watery solution filling the vacuoles

49

nucleus

the organelle containing the chromosomes of eukaryotic cells

50

chloroplast

a green oval pigmented organelle varying in number

51

nucleolus

one or more dark stained areas within the nucleus containing protein and RNA

52

cytoplasmic streaming

a flowing motion of granules causing the chloroplasts and other organelles to be pushed around

53

before putting your microscope away:

remove the slide, put the 4X lens in place, close the working distance between the stage and objectives, wrap the chord in proper position for your microscope, cover your microscope, put your microscope back in its assigned place

54

what stain was used on the onion cell?

iodine stain

55

what stain was used on the cheek cell?

blue