Theories of Moral Development Flashcards


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1

refers to the process whereby people form a progressive sense of what is right and wrong, proper and improper

Moral Development

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3 Theories of Moral Development

  1. Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
  2. Gilligan's Theory of Women's Moral Development
  3. Rest's Neo-Kohlbergian Approach
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An American Psychologist who developed the 6 stages of Moral Development which are divided into 3 levels

Lawrence Kohlberg

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a Theory that focuses on how people develop morality. This theory primarily focused on maintaining justice.

Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development

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3 levels of Kohlberg's Moral Development

Level 1: Preconventional Morality

Level 2: Conventional Morality

Level 3: Post Conventional Morality

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In this stage, the person feels responsible and shows care towards other people

Conventional Level

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This is the stage where the principle of care for self and for others, is accepted

Post Conventional Level

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Earliest stage of moral development is where people see rules as fixed and absolute. Obeying rules is important because it is a means to avoid punishment

Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment

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people account for individual points of view and judge actions based on how they serve individual needs. Reciprocity is possible at this point, but only if it serves one's own interests.

Stage 2: Individualism and Exchange

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Focused on living up to social expectations and roles. There is an emphasis on conformity, and consideration of how choices influence relationship

Stage 3: Developing Good Interpersonal Relationship

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Focus on maintaining law and order to ensure that social order is also maintained. People begin to consider society as a whole when making judgements.

Stage 4: Maintaining Social Order

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The ideas of a social contract and individual rights cause people in the next stage to begin to account for the differing values, opinions, and beliefs of other people.

Stage 5: Social Contract and Individual Rights

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The final level of moral reasoning is where people follow these internalize principles of justice, even if they conflict with laws and rules.

Stage 6: Universal Principles

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American Development Psychologist

Carol Gilligan

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are based on pro-social behaviors such as altruism, caring, and helping. It is also based on the traits such as honesty, fairness, and respect.

Gilligan's Theory of Wome's Moral Development

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2 Types of Thinking

  • Care-based Morality
  • Justice-Based Morality
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the kind of thinking found in women.

Care-based Morality

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the kind of thinking found in men.

Justice-based Morality

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an American psychologist specializing in moral psychology and development

James Rest

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reflects gradual development and does not privilege justice-based moral reasoning in its definition of the highest forms of moral reasoning.

Rest's Neo-Kohlbergian Approach

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Focus on the self and recognizes some awareness of the other in making moral decisions.

Personal Interest

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Societal collaboration shape thinking

Maintaining Norms

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Moral obligation impacts generalized values in terms of logic and rhetoric

Post-Conventional