Gould's Pathophysiology for the Health Professions: Exam 1 Pathophysiology Nursing School Flashcards


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Chapters 1, 2, 5,6,7, and 20
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1

Decrease in cell size

Due to underuse

Atrophy

2

Increase in cell size

Due to overuse

Hypertrophy

3

Increase in number of cells

Compensatory Mechanism

(Think Mammary Glands or Uterine Enlargement due to Pregnancy)

Hyperplasia

4

One Mature Cell type is replaced by a different Mature Cell type due to original cells inability to withstand environment

(GERD esophagus, Respiratory tract of smokers)

Metaplasia

5

cells vary in shapes and sizes no organization

pre cancerous change

(cervical)

Dysplasia

6

cells are undifferentiated

variable nuclear and cell structures

numerous mitotic figures

Anaplasia

7

Control growth apoptosis stick together

Normal cell

8

Long Term Potassium deficits increase the risk of?

Cardiac Dysrhythmia

9

muscle cramps/weakness/fatigue

abdominal cramps

lethargy/confusion/seizures

Signs of Hyponatremia

10

Excessive sweat

vomiting

Diarrhea

Excessive water intake

Risk Factors of Hyponatremia

11

Muscle Cramps

Abdominal Cramps

Anorexia

Nausea

Fatigue/Lethargy/confusion

Decrease in Blood Pressure

Signs/Manifestations of Hyponatremia

12

Renal Failure

potassium (K+) sparing diuretics

Burns/Crush injuries

Causes of Hyperkalemia

13

Arrhythmias

Nausea/ Diarrhea

Muscle Weakness

Paralysis

Paresthesia (abnormal tingling)

Oliguria (production of abnormally small amounts of urine)

Manifestations of Hyperkalemia

14

Hypothyroidism

malabsorption

vitamin D deficiency

Causes of Hypocalcemia

15

Usually occurs with renal failure

increase Mg intake

Causes of Hypermagnesemia

16

Loss of hydrogen ions

Gain of bicarbonate

Causes of Metabolic Alkalosis

Bicarbonate higher than 26

pH lower than 7.35

CO2 is normal 35-45

17

Loss of acid

Vomiting

NG tube suctioning

Diuretics

Gain of Bicarbonate

Risk Factors of Metabolic Alkalosis

18

Agitation/Irritable

Light-headedness

Tetany (muscle spasms)

paresthesia

seizures

Manifestations of Metabolic Alkalosis

19

Gain in hydrogen ions

loss of bicarbonate

Causes of Metabolic Acidosis

Bicarbonate is below 22

CO2 is normal 35-45

pH is higher than 7.45

20

Headache/confusion/lethargy/coma

Kussmaul's respirations

Nausea/vomiting/abdominal pain

Cardiac Dyrshythmias

Manifestations of Metabolic Acidosis

21

muscle twitching/ tetany

chvostek sign (spasm of lip or face when tapped in front of the ear)

trousseau sign (carpopedal spasm when a blood pressure cuff is applied blocking blood flow to hand)

cardiac dysrhythmias

Manifestations of Hypocalcemia

22

Hyperthyroidism

bone cancer

immobility

causes of Hypercalcemia

23

Muscle weakness

loss of muscle tone

spontaneous fractures

kidney stones

cardiac dysrhythmias

manifestations of Hypercalcemia

24

Normal Level of Calcium

8.5-10.5mg/dL

25

Diuretics

Inadequate K+ intake

Excessive Diarrhea

Causes of Hypokalemia

26

Muscle Fatigue/Cramps

Nausea/vomiting/constipation

Cardiac Dysrhythmias

Manifestations of Hypokalemia

27

Normal Level of Magneisum

1.6-2.5mEq/L

28

If Magnesium is low what else is low

Potassium and Calcium are also low

29

Hypocapnia (decrease in CO2)

Ventilation impairments

Hyperventalation

causes of Respiratory Alkalosis

30

Panic attacks

fever

brain injuries

mechanical ventilation

Risk factors of respiratory alkalosis

31

Agitated/ irritable

light headedness

seizures

tetany

paresthesia

Manifestations of Respiratory Alkalosis

32

Hypercapnia

ventilation impairments

hypoventilation

causes of Respiratory Acidosis

33

opiate overdose/overuse

respiratory disease

sleep apnea

airway obstruction

anesthetics

Risk Factors of Respiratory Acidosis

34

Headache/ confusion/ lethargy/coma

tremors

paralysis

manifestations of respiratory acidosis

35

Loss of water

Excessive intake of sodium

causes of Hypernatremia

36

Excessive sweating

vomiting/ diarrhea

decreased water intake

Risk Factors of Hypernatremia

37

Signs of fluid deficit

thirst

headache/ agitation

manifestations of hypernatremia

38

Fluid Compartments

Intra cellular

Extracellular

39

Compartments of Extracellular

Intravascular

Interstitial

Cerebrospinal

Transellular

40

Intracellular

the compartment and fluid with in the cells and bounded by the cell membrane

41

Intravascular

fluid with in lymph capillaries and blood vessels

42

interstitial

fluid between the cells

43

Maintaining fluid balance

Thirst Mechanism

Hormones

44

Antidiuretic Hormone

reabsorbed water in kidneys

45

Aldosterone

reabsorbed water and sodium

46

Atrial natriuretic peptide

promotes excreation of water and sodium (urinate more)

47

Filtration

fluid and solute from blood vessel to interstitial space

48

osmosis

from interstitial space to blood vessel

49

hydrostatic pressure

Increase in volume stay away pushing pressure

50

Osmotic Pressue

Come to mama

pulling pressure

51

increased hydrostatic pressure

higher blood pressure

prevents return of fluid

Kidney failure, CHF, or Pulmonary disease are all examples)

52

Decreased Osmotic Pressure

loss of plasma proteins specifically albumin

53

Increased capillary permeability

localized edema

inflammatory response or infection

(bacteria toxins, large burns or wounds)

54

Lymphatic Obstruction

excessive fluid and protein are not returned to general circulation

55

Kidney/ liver/ heart failure

increased sodium intake

IV Fluid

Blood transfusions

Causes of Fluid Excess

56

Dyspnea

Decreased Lab values

increased urine output

High blood pressure

Bounding pulse (slow or fast)

Jugular Vein Distention

Edema

Manifestations of Fluid excess

57

Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure

decreased capillary osmotic pressure

increased capillary permeability

Obstruction of the Lymphatic Circulation

Causes of Edema

58

Complications of Edema

Restriction in range of motion at joints

pain

decreased arterial circulation

skin break down or damage

59

Malnutrition issues

Malabsorption issues

Diuretics

Causes of Hypomagnesemia

60

Tremors

Hyperreflexia

insomnia

Manifestations of Hypomagnesemia

61

Hyporeflexia

Lethargy

Respiratory Depression

Manifestations of Hypermagnesemia

62

Normal Level of Potassium

3.5-5 mEq/L

63

Normal Level of Sodium

135-145mEq/L

64

Skin Turgor

Skin with decreased turgor remains elevated after being pulled up and released.

65

Dry Mucous Membrane

Manifestation of Fluid deficit

66

Excess loss

inadequate intake

or combination of both

Causes of Fluid Deficit

67

Vomiting/Diarrhea

Excessive Sweating

Insufficient water intake

Risk factors of Fluid Deficit

68

Dry mouth

Decreased Skin Turgor

increased lab values

decreased urine output

low blood pressure

fast and weak heart rate

confusion

manifestations of fluid deficit

69

A nurse is teaching a client about the manifestations of hypokalemia. Which manifestation, if stated by the client, indicates teaching was effective?

Cardiac dysrhythmias

70

The movement of water from the interstitial space to the vascular space is known as what?

Osmosis

71

What is the role of ADH in maintaining fluid balance?

Reabsorption of water

72

What is the role of ADH in maintaining fluid balance?

High Blood Pressure

73

Which manifestation of fluid deficit stated by the nurse requires further teaching?

Bounding Pulse

74

A client has been profusely sweating and is complaining of being thirsty. What electrolyte imbalance does the nurse suspect?

Hypernatremia

75

What is a manifestation of hyponatremia?

Seizures

76

A client presents with renal failure. Which electrolyte imbalance does the nurse suspect?

Hypermagnesemia

77

A client comes in with bone cancer. What electrolyte imbalance does the nurse suspect?

Hypercalcemia

78

How does the respiratory system maintain acid base balance?

Retaining or excreting CO2

79

What is the cause of respiratory acidosis?

Hypercapnia

80

Which is a normal ABG?

pH 7.40, CO2 35, HCO3 22

81

A client comes in with sepsis. For which acid-base imbalance does the nurse monitor?

Metabolic acidosis

82

A client has renal failure and deep rapid respirations. What is the name of the compensation mechanism responsible for the clients respiratory pattern?

Kussmaul respiration

83

A client has been taking a diuretic medication. What acid base imbalance does the nurse expect?

Metabolic alkalosis

84

Which ABG result is indicative of Respiratory acidosis?

pH 7.22, CO2 60, HCO3 26

85

Which is a cause of hyponatremia?

Taking in too much water

86

Tears is _____ in defense

First

87

Inflammation is ________ in defense

Second

88

Skin is _____ in defense

First

89

T-Lymphocytes is ______ in defense

third

90

Saliva is _______ in defense

First

91

Neutrophils/Macrophages is _______ in defense

Second

92

Unique antibodies is ______ in defense

Third

93

Mucous Membranes is ______ in defense

First

94

A nurse is teaching a student about the role of inflammation. Which statement by the student indicates a need for further instruction?

It is the body's specific response to tissue injury.

95

What is the role of histamine in the inflammatory process?

It causes vasodilation.

96

Fever is local or systemic?

Systemic

97

Redness is local or systemic?

Local

98

Warmth is local or systemic?

Local

99

Malaise is local or systemic?

Systemic

100

Fatigue is local or systemic?

Systemic

101

Headache is local or systemic?

Systemic

102

Pain is local or systemic?

Local

103

Swelling/Edema is local or systemic?

Local

104

Exudate is local or systemic?

Local

105

Anorexia is local or systemic?

Systemic

106

Decreased function/ range of motion is local or systemic?

Local

107

A nurse is teaching a client about complications of chronic inflammation. Which complications, if stated by the client, indicate understanding of the teaching? (Select all that apply)

Development of extensive scar tissue More tissue destruction occurs. Periodic exacerbations of acute inflammation

Deep ulcers and perforation

108

What are the complications that occur due to scar tissue formation?

Loss of function

Ulcerations

Obstructions

Adhesions

Contractures

109

What is the Rule of Nines used for?

To determine the body surface area burned.

110

true or false: Nosocomial infections are acquired out in the community such as malls, amusement parks, and grocery stores.

False

111

Guidelines by which all blood, body fluids, and wastes are considered infected in any client regardless of the client's apparent condition is the basis of which precaution?Group of answer choices

Standard

112

Red, pink, dry Type of burn

Superficial

113

Charred, black, hard, dry, leathery

Full Thickness

114

Mottled, red, white and waxy

Deep Partial Thickness

115

Affects all of the epidermis and dermis

Deep Partial Thickness

116

Extends into the subcutaneous tissue and underlying structures

Full Thickness

117

Affects the outer layer of the epidermis

Superficial

118

Affects all of the epidermis and part of the dermis

Superficial Partial Thickness

119

Heals readily without scar tissue

Superfical

120

Sun poisoning

Superficial Partial Thickness

121

Healing takes months to years and usually needs skin grafts

Full Thickness

122

Sunburn

Superficial

123

Sexual intercourse

Direct Tranmission

124

Respiratory secretion expelled from the body

Droplet transmission

125

Mosquitos carrying West Nile Virus

Vector

126

Tuberculosis

Aerosol Transmission

127

Flu Virus

Droplet

128

Contact with contaminated food

Indirect

129

Small particles from the respiratory tract that remain suspended in the air and travel on air currents

Areosol

130

Vague manifestations such as fatigue, anorexia, and headache.

Prodromal stage

131

Manifestations start subsiding and body processes return to normal

Recovery Stage

132

The time between exposure to an organism and appearance of manifestations.

Incubation Period

133

Fully developed infection; manifestations peak

Acute Period

134

What diagnostic tests are used to diagnose infections?

C-Reactive Protein (CRP)

Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR)

Complete blood count (CBC)

Cultures

135

What is the role of the complement system in immunity?

It promotes inflammation and phagocytosis

136

What is the term for the antibodies that attack the body's own tissues?

Autoantibodies

137

What is the role of antibodies?

Bind to antigen to destroy it

138

A nurse is teaching on the different types of hypersensitivities. Which hypersensitivity stated by the nurse requires further teaching?

Toxic reactions

139

Which type of acquired immunity involves direct exposure to an antigen?

Active natural

140

What is an example of a Type IV hypersensitivity?

Organ rejection

141

What is a manifestation of being immunodeficient?

Recurrent infections

142

What precaution is needed for a client with AIDS?

Standard precautions